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Chapter Nine. Creative Advertising Strategy. Chapter Nine Objectives. Understand the role of advertising agencies and the relationship between agency and client Appreciate the factors that promote creative and effective advertising

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chapter nine objectives
Chapter Nine Objectives
  • Understand the role of advertising agencies and the relationship between agency and client
  • Appreciate the factors that promote creative and effective advertising
  • Describe a five-step program used in formulating advertising strategy
chapter nine objectives1
Chapter Nine Objectives
  • Describe the features of a creative brief
  • Explain alternative creative strategies that play a role in the development of advertising messages
  • Explain the concept of means-end chains and their role in advertising strategy
chapter nine objectives2
Chapter Nine Objectives
  • Understand the MECCAS model and its role in guiding message formulation
  • Describe the laddering method that provides the data used in constructing a MECCAS model
  • Describe the role of corporate image and issue advertising
alternative ways to perform the advertising function
Alternative ways to perform the advertising function

In-house advertising operation

  • Necessitates employing an advertising staff and absorbing the operation costs
  • Unprofitable unless a company does a large and continuous advertising
alternative ways to perform the advertising function1
Alternative ways to perform the advertising function

Full-service advertising agency

Advantages

  • In-depth knowledge and skills
  • Obtaining negotiating muscle with the media
  • Coordinating advertising and marketing efforts

Disadvantages

  • Some control is lost
  • Larger clients are favored over small clients
  • Occasionally inefficient in media buying
alternative ways to perform the advertising function2
Alternative ways to perform the advertising function

A la carte

Advantages

  • Use services only when they are needed
  • Availability of high-caliber creative talent
  • Potential cost efficiencies

Disadvantages

  • Specialists approach client problems in a stereotyped fashion
  • Lack of cost accountability
  • Financial instability of smaller boutiques
advertising agency organization
Advertising Agency Organization

Creative Services

  • Develop advertising copy and campaigns
  • Copywriters, production people, and creative directors

Media Services

Research Services

Account Management

advertising agency organization1
Advertising Agency Organization

Creative Services

  • Selecting the best advertising media
  • Media planners develop overall media strategy
  • Media buyers procure the selected media

Media Services

Research Services

Account Management

advertising agency organization2
Advertising Agency Organization

Creative Services

  • Study clients’ customers’ buying habits, purchase preferences, and responsiveness
  • Focus groups, mall intercepts, acquisition of syndicated research data

Media Services

Research Services

Account Management

advertising agency organization3
Advertising Agency Organization

Creative Services

  • Link the agency with the client
  • Act as liaisons so that the client does not need to interact directly with several different service departments and specialists

Media Services

Research Services

Account Management

agency compensation
Agency Compensation
  • Commissions from media (15%)
  • Reduced commission system(<15%)

Three

Sources

  • Labor-based fee system
  • Outcome-based
memorable advertising
Memorable Advertising

Apple Computer’s “1984” TV Commercial

what makes effective advertising
What Makes Effective Advertising?

Consumer’s

View

Sound

Strategy

Persuasive

Effective

Advertising

Break

Clutter

Doesn’t

Overwhelm

Deliver on

Promises

creating effective advertising
Creating Effective Advertising
  • The Role of Creativity
being creative
Characteristics of

creative campaigns

Differentiates itself

Out-if-the-ordinary

Energizer Batteries

Being Creative
energizer batteries
Energizer Batteries
  • Energizer Batteries keep going, and going, and going…
  • Like the drum-beating bunny that reinforces the argument
being creative1
Characteristics of

creative campaigns

Differentiates itself

Out-if-the-ordinary

Energizer Batteries

Pepsi-Cola

Being Creative
pepsi cola
Pepsi-Cola

commercial

pokes fun at its

competitor,

Coca-cola

and subtly

conveys the

message that

perhaps

Pepsi is better

than Coke

Pepsi-Cola
being creative2
Characteristics of

creative campaigns

Differentiates itself

Out-if-the-ordinary

Energizer Batteries

Pepsi-Cola

Volkswagen Golf

Being Creative
being creative3
Characteristics of

creative campaigns

Differentiates itself

Out-if-the-ordinary

Energizer Batteries

Pepsi-Cola

Volkswagen Golf

Bud Light

Being Creative
creating effective advertising1
Creating Effective Advertising

The Role of Creativity

  • Spuds MacKenzie campaign
  • Budfrogs
  • Louie and Frank
  • Whassup?!
little caesar s
Little Caesar’s

The toga-clad “Pizza,

Pizza” man captures

and holds the viewer’s

attention and provides

Little Caesar’s with a

unique image vis-a-vis

its more laid-back

competitors

volkswagen golf
This simple ad dramatizes that the Volkswagen

Golf is a roomy car while holding the viewer’s

attention in an entertaining manner

Volkswagen Golf
advertising plans and strategy
Advertising Plans and Strategy

Advertising plan

Provides the framework for systematic

execution of advertising strategies

advertising plans and strategy1
Advertising Plans and Strategy

Advertising strategy

An advertising message that

communicates the brand’s primary

benefits or how it can solve a

consumer’s problem

advertising plans and strategy3
Advertising Plans and Strategy

Key Fact

A single-minded statement from the

customer’s points of view that identifies

why consumers are or are not

purchasing the brand

advertising plans and strategy4
Advertising Plans and Strategy

States the problem from

the marketer’s point of view

advertising plans and strategy5
Advertising Plans and Strategy

What effect the advertising is intended

to have on the target market and how it

should persuade consumers

advertising plans and strategy6
Advertising Plans and Strategy
  • Define the target market
  • Identify the primary competition
  • Choose the positioning statement
  • Offer reasons why
advertising plans and strategy7
Advertising Plans and Strategy
  • Relatively technical and uncreative
  • It reminds the advertiser to include the corporate slogan or logo, any regulatory requirements and so on
constructing a creative brief
Constructing a Creative Brief

Background

Their current thoughts/feelings

Strategy

What do we want them to think/feel

Task

What do we want them to do

Positioning

Proposition

Client’s Objectives

Belief in proposition

Target

How we speak to them

alternative creative strategies unique selling proposition
Alternative Creative StrategiesUnique Selling Proposition

Definition

Superiority claims based on

unique physical feature or

benefit

Conditions

Most useful when point of

difference cannot be readily

matched by competitors

Competitive

Implications

May force competitors to imitate

or choose more aggressive

strategy

alternative creative strategies brand image
Alternative Creative StrategiesBrand Image

Definition

Claims based on psychological

differentiation, usually symbolic

association

Conditions

Best for homogeneous good

where differences are difficult to

develop; easily duplicated

Competitive

Implications

Most often involve prestige

claims; rarely challenge

competition directly

alternative creative strategies resonance
Alternative Creative StrategiesResonance

Attempts to evoke stored

experiences of prospects to

endow product with relevant

meaning or significance

Definition

Best for socially visible goods;

requires considerable consumer

understanding to design

messages

Conditions

Competitive

Implications

Few direct limitations on

competitor’s options; most likely

competitive response is imitation

alternative creative strategies emotional
Alternative Creative StrategiesEmotional

Definition

Attempts to provoke involvement

or emotion through ambiguity,

humor without strong selling

emphasis

Conditions

Best suited to discretionary

items; effective use depends on

competitor response

Competitive

Implications

Competitors may imitate to

undermine strategy of difference

or pursue other alternatives

alternative creative strategies generic
Alternative Creative StrategiesGeneric

Definition

Straight product or benefit claim

with no assertion of superiority

Conditions

Monopoly or extreme dominance

of product category

Competitive

Implications

Brand attempts to become

synonymous with product

category

alternative creative strategies p reemptive
Alternative Creative Strategies Preemptive

Definition

Generic claim with assertion of

superiority

Conditions

Growing or awakening market

where competitive advertising is

generic or nonexistent

Competitive

Implications

May be successful in convincing

customer of superiority

advertising applications of means end chains
Advertising Applications ofMeans - End Chains

1. Leverage Point

The manner in which the advertising will

tap into, reach, or activate the key value, or

end-level that serves as the

advertisement’s driving force

advertising applications of means end chains1
Advertising Applications of Means - End Chains

2. Brand Attributes

The brand’s specific attributes or features

that are communicated as a means of

supporting the consequences of using the

brand

advertising applications of means end chains2
Advertising Applications of Means - End Chains

3. Brand Consequence

The major positive consequences,

or benefits of using the brand

advertising applications of means end chains3
Advertising Applications ofMeans - End Chains

4. Value - Orientation

The end-level

(terminal or instrumental value)

to be focused on in the advertising

advertising applications of means end chains4
Advertising Applications ofMeans - End Chains
  • 10 Universal Values
  • Self-direction
  • Stimulation
  • Hedonism
  • Achievement
  • Power
  • Security
  • Conformity
  • Tradition
  • Benevolence
  • Universalism
means end chains and advertising strategy
Means - End Chains and Advertising Strategy

Freedom

(of choice)

Happiness,

Self-respect

Pleasure

Low fat

Healthy

Lack of

self-control

Wisdom

Many

flavors

Variety

of choices

Great

Tasting

High

quality

Consequences

Values

Attributes

Healthy

Choice

corporate advertising
Corporate Advertising

Two Forms

  • Image advertising
  • Issue or advocacy advertising