DRUG CALCULATIONS

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# DRUG CALCULATIONS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

DRUG CALCULATIONS. MAKING IT EASY . CLASS OUTLINE. 1) review roman numerals 2) review apothecary measurements 3) review conversions 4) review 3 steps to dosage calculations 5) practice, practice, practice . Plugging in to Memory. Roman Numerals. APOTHECARY MEASURES.

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Presentation Transcript

### DRUG CALCULATIONS

MAKING IT EASY

CLASS OUTLINE
• 1) review roman numerals
• 2) review apothecary measurements
• 3) review conversions
• 4) review 3 steps to dosage calculations
• 5) practice, practice, practice
Plugging in to Memory
• Roman Numerals
APOTHECARY MEASURES
• What are we talking about?
CONVERSIONS
• - WITHIN SYSTEMS
• - BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS
WITHIN SYSTEMS
• MEMORIZE:
• 1 gram (g or G) = 1000 milligrams (mg)
• 1 liter (l or L) = 1000 milliliters (ml or mL)
• 3 teaspoons (t) = 1 tablespoon (T)
• 1 cubic centimeter (cc) = 1 milliliter (ml)
BETWEEN SYSTEMS
• MEMORIZE:
• 1 gram (G, GM, gm) = 15 grains (gr)
• 60 milligrams (mg) = 1 grain (gr)
• 1 tablespoon (T) = 15 ml
• 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb)
• 1 ounce (oz) = 30 ml or 30 cc
• 1 cc = 15 drops (gtt) or 15 minims (mx)
• 1 inch (in) = 2.5 centimeters (cm)
WITHIN SYSTEMS
• 1) Write down what you know in a ratio or fraction format:
• Example: 1 Gram
• 1000 milligrams
2) Write down what you desire in a ratio or fraction format to complete the proportion:
• Example: 3 Grams
• x milligrams
Remember:
• The numerator and denominator must be the same unit of measurement
• The unknown value is referred to as “x”
The completed proportion:
• 1 Gram3 Grams
• 1000 mg : : x milligrams
• Cross multiply
1 GM x X mg(s) = 3 GM x 1000 mg
• Drop the terms used for units of measurement: 1 X = 3(1000)
• Solve for X: divide both sides of the equation by the number preceding X:
• X = 3000
• 1 1 X = 3000
BETWEEN SYSTEMS
• 1) Write down what you know in a fraction format:
• 15 grains
• 1 gram
2) Complete the proportion by writing down what you desire:
• 15 grains30 grains
• 1 gram : : X grams
• HINT: Keep the units of measurements in the correct spaces!
Drop the units of measurement
• Cross multiply
• 15 x X = 30 x 1
• 15X = 30
• Solve for X: Divide each side by the number in front of X : X = 2 ANS: 2 Grams
3 STEPS TO DOSAGE CALCULATION:
• 1) Convert to units of same system and similar unit
• 2) STOP AND THINK
• 3) Desired over amount on hand times quantity
• EX: desired
• amount on hand x quantity
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
• 1) Convert: 300 mg to grams
• 2) Convert: 120 mg to grains
• 3) Convert: 30 gr to grams
• 4) A child who weighs 55 pounds weighs ____
• kilograms?
5) A patient is restricted to four 8-ounce glasses of water per day. The nurse knows that the patient’s fluid intake is restricted to ____ mls per day.
• 6) The nurse administered aspirin gr v. She knew this was equivalent to _____milligrams(s).
7) Potassium chloride tablets are available in 300 mg doses. The physician prescribed gr v. Give ____ tablet(s).
• 8) The physician prescribed Capoten, 1.5 grams daily in three equal doses, for hypertension. The nurse would give _____ 1000 mg tablet(s) three times a day.
9) Lasix 30 mg, IM, is prescribed as a diuretic. Lasix was available as 40 mg/mL. The nurse would give ______mL.
• 10) Scopolamine 0.3 mg was ordered subcutaneously as a preanesthetic medication. The medication was available in ampules containing grains 1/200 per mL. The nurse would give _____mL.
11) The physician prescribed 25 mg of Librium, IM. Add 2 mL of diluent to yield 100 mg/2ML. The nurse should give _____ mL.
• 12) The physician prescribed 5 mg of Garamycin for a child. The medication is available as 20 mgs/mL. To give 5 mg, you would give ____ mL.
PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE
• And HOLLER if you need help!