CambodiaKampuchea Angkor Kambuja History 354 Campbell University
An Ancient Prophecy A darkness will settle on the people of Cambodia. There will be houses but no people in them, roads but not travelers; the land will be ruled by barbarians with no religion; blood will run so deep as to touch the belly of the elephant. Only the deaf and mute will survive. The Lost Executioner bv Nic Dunlop
Government/Economy • Form: Constitutional Monarchy. • System: Parliamentary bicameral. P.M.- Hun Sen • Capital: Phnom Penh • Resources: Timber, gem stones, coastal oil & natural gas. (2005) • Industry: Garment Manufacture & Tourism. • Agriculture: Rice, rubber, corn, cashews, tapioca & cardamom. King Norodom Sihamoni, son of Norodom Sihanouk, assumed throne in 2004. He was trained as a ballet dancer. No heir.
Questions • Q1. How large is Cambodia? What is its population? What is the nationality and religion of most of the population? • A1. Cambodia is about the size of Oklahoma. Its population is 14 million. 90%+ of the people are Khmer and Theravada Buddhist. • Q2. What is the form of government? Where is the capital? • A2. Constitutional monarchy. The capital is Phnom Penh.
More Questions • Q3. What proportion of the Cambodian population is under 21 years of age? • A3. One half or 7 million. Why? • Q4. What industry has recently provided the greatest boost to the Cambodian GNP? • A4. The garment industry. • Q5.What country is Cambodia’s largest export customer? • A5. The USA with over 51%.
Earliest Civilization • Human remains - 1500 BC. • Major Indian cultural influences: • Agriculture: Cattle-raising and rice cultivation. • Religion: Hinduism with Shiva/phallic worship. Later, Buddhism. • Government: Concept of monarchy – Deva-raja. • Language: • At the Royal Court: Sanskrit aural & written. • In the country side: aural and written Khmer of the common people.
Pre-Colonial Kingdoms • Funan - 1st thru 6th Century • Chenla – 6th to 8th Century • Water (Lower) Chenla – 706 to 802 • Angkor/Kambujia – 9th to 15th Century • Phonom Penh/Lovek – 1432 to 1863 • French Protectorate – 1863 to 1887
Funan • Earliest kingdom - 1st – 6th Century. Mon-Khmer. • Capital: Ba Phnom • Major port: Oc Eo. • Described in Chinese records by K’ang T’ai. • Composed of costal areas from Nha Trang on the S.China Sea to the Upper Malay Peninsula
Oc Eo Gold coin from Oc Eo, a major port of the kingdom of Funan. Oc Eo may have been known to the Romans as Kattigara. It’s in Ptolemy’s geography and may have influenced Columbus.
Chenla • Chenla was a vassal state of Funan. It became an independent in 550 CE. • King Ishanavarman conquered Funan during 612-628. • During the next three centuries, Chenla annexed central and lower Laos and southern Thailand. • In the 8th Century, factional disputes led to it becoming two states in 706: Land (Upper) Chenla and Water (Lower) Chenla.
Water Chenla • During the late 8th Century, Water (Lower) Chenla suffered repeated attacks by pirates from Java, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. • In the 9th Century, it became a vassal state of Sailendra (Java). In 790, the king of Water Chenla was killed by the Javanese monarch whom he had offended, leading to a power vacuum. • The king of a small Khmer state north of the Mekong Delta assumed the throne as Jayavarman II (r.802-850) This was the beginning of the Angor Kingdom.
The Devaraja Cult • In 802, Jayavarman II proclaimed himself god-king of Cambodia. He did so through a Hindu ritual involving worship of Shiva, king of the gods. • A royal cult developed, involved an annual festival during which a statue of Shiva was paraded thru the capital city. • The ceremony not only proclaimed the devaraja but Cambodia’ permanent separation from Java. Ritually sanctifying a symbol of the devaraja.
Questions • Q1. What three kingdoms composed Cambodia’s earliest (pre-Angkorian) history? • A1. Funan, Chenla and Water Chenla. • Q2. What country provided the dominant cultural influence for these early kingdoms? • A2. India. • Q3. What evidence do we have of Funan’s existence and role as an entrepot? • A3. Chinese records, Ptolemy’s geography and the archeological remains, e.g., Oc Eo.
More Questions • Q4. What was the impact of the collapse of the Roman empire on Funan? • A4. Contributed to Funan’s collapse. Why? • Q5. What happened to Land (Upper) Chenla? • Q5. It became Laos, eventually. • Q6. What SEAsian country dominated Water Chenla? • A6. Sailandra/Java. • Q7. Name the king who initiated the move to Angkor. His coronation involved what cult? • A7. Jayavarman II. Shiva/Devaraja.
Angkor/Kambuja • Angor or Kambuja - late 9th to late 15th Centuries. • From 802 to 1471, it was the mightiest kingdom in S.E. Asia, receiving tribute from its neighbors. • Indravarman I (A.D. 877-89) extended control to the Korat Plateau and began a program of constructing reservoirs and canals to provide irrigation for wet rice cultivation. The Angkor complex is north of the Tonle Sap and the modern city of Sien Reap. The location provided protection from Javanese incursions.
Angkor Wat • Suryavarman II (1113-50) built Angkor Wat. He expanded the kingdom’s territory thru successful wars with Champa, Nam Viet, the Mons in Burma and Thai people, who he reduced to vassalage. • Thirty years later the Cham revenged their losses by destroying the city of Angkor in 1177. Angkor Wat is the largest religious edifice in the world and the greatest architectural work in Southeast Asia.
Angkorian S.E.Asia Cham statue of Shiva
Angkor Wat Complex • The Angkor Wat complex was dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu and reflects the structure of the Hindu mythological universe. The five towers at the center represent the peaks of Mount Meru, the center of the universe; the outer walls represent the mountains that ring the world’s edge; and the moat depicts the cosmic ocean. The Angkor Wat complex as seen from the air.
Angkor Thom • Angkor Thom was built by Jayavarman VII (r.1181-1218) following the expulsion of the Cham. It was a governmental complex. The statuary and relief carvings are Mahayana Buddhist rather than Hindu. They depict Buddha's, gods and kings. • Jayavarman VII also built 200 rest houses and hospitals and maintained a system roads between the capital and provincial towns. • A Thai army captured Angkor Thom in 1431. Angkor Thom South Gate
Bayon • Angkorian society was strictly hierarchical. The king was divine and owned both the land and his subject. The Brahman priesthood and about 4,000 official were below the monarch and his family and administered the country. • The commoners bore the burden of corvee labor. There was also a large slave class that built the monuments. Bayon is a Buddhist temple. It was built in the Angkor Thom complex in the 12th & 13th Century. 216 faces of Buddhas, gods and kings are carved into the stone. The central face is that of Jayavarman VII.
Questions • Q1. Why did Jayavarman II move the capital of Cambodia to the Angkor area? • A1. To find a safer location. • Q2. What was the source of Angkorian wealth? • A2. Agriculture. Wet rice cultivation made possible through the construction of reservoirs and canals. • Q3. To what god was Angor Wat dedicated? What did its design reflect? • A3. The Hindu god, Vishnu. Its design reflected the Hindu mythological universe.
More Questions • Q4. What country conquered Angkor in 1177? • A4. Champa. • Q5. Bayon was built as part of what complex? Whose face is carved in the temple? • A5. Angkor Thom. Jayavarman VII. • Q6. Angkor Thom reflects what religious tradition? • A6. Mahayana Buddhism.
Cambodia’s Dark Ages • From 1432 to 1887, was a period of economic, social and cultural stagnation together with increasing Thai and Vietnamese encroachment and control. • The capital was moved to near Phnom Penh after the capture of Angkor Thom in 1431, giving the Khmers control over trade along the Mekong and Tonle Sap. Sample of relief carvings on Angkor Wat. These are devatas, Hindu guardian spirits, usually female.
Western Contact • King Ang Chan (1516-66) moved the capital north along the Tonle Sap to Lovek in 1553. Lovek became the site of the flourishing foreign trade, including the Portuguese & Spanish and later Dutch & English. • Thai pressure led Khmer King Sattha (1576-94) to ask the Spanish governor of the the Philippines for aid in 1593. The Spanish saw this as an opportunity to establish a protectorate and sent a 120 man force. It was too late. The Thai had captured Lovek in 1594.
French Protectorate • Under King Norodom, Cambodia became a French protectorate in 1863 to avoid Thai and Vietnamese encroachment. • The treaty provided French protection in exchange for permission for a French “resident” plus rights of exploration along the Mekong and exploitation of natural resources. • The Thai relinquished their influence in exchange for the Provinces of Battambang & Siem Reap in 1867. French dominion in Vietnam (1862) & Cambodia (1863).
Questions • Q1. Which country conquered Angkor Thom in 1431 leading to Cambodia’s “Dark Age.” • A1. Thailand. • Q2. To where was the Cambodian capital moved in 1432? • A2. Phnom Penh. • Q3. The movement of the capital to what location in 1532 led to flourishing foreign trade with western nations? • A3. Lovek.
More Questions • Q4. In 1593, the king of Cambodia asked the colonial governor of what country for aid? • A4. The Philippines. • Q5. Why did King Norodom seek French protection in 1863? • A5. Fear of Thai and Vietnamese encroachment. • Q6. In 1867, what induced Thailand to relinquish its influence in Cambodia to the French? • A6. The “gift” of the provinces of Batambang and Siem Reap.
French Indochina • France proclaimed the Union of Indochina in 1887. It included Laos, Tonkin, Annam and Cochinchina in addition to Cambodia. • The extent of French control in Cambodia was determined thru an 1884 treaty and a declaration in 1897. It was a rare example of direct rule.
The 1884 treaty was imposed by gun boat diplomacy. It required the abolition of slavery, instituted private land ownership, and established of French residents in provincial cities. In 1897, the resident declared King Norodom incompetent and received permission from France to assume the king's authority to issue decrees, collect taxes, and appoint royal officials in his name. Direct Rule
Cambodian Resistance • King Norodom stymied the enforcement of the 1884 treaty reforms until his death in 1904. • Norodom’s son, Prince Yukanthor, was highly critical of the French administration during his travels in Europe in the 1890’s. • Yukanthor’s attitude reflected the feelings of many Cambodians when he said to the French people “You have created property in Cambodia, and thus you have created the poor.”
Cambodian Resistance • King Sisowath proved more cooperative. Nevertheless, the country remained mired in patronage, violence, fatalism, corruption, inefficiency and banditry. • The Cambodians felt threatened by change, especially modernization. • The French administration focused on rice, rubber and efficient tax collection. They increasingly relied upon immigrant Chinese and Vietnamese for labor and local administration.
1916 Affair and Murder • The French convinced themselves that all was well in the provinces, ignoring unexpressed feelings in an unvarying calm. • The 1916 Affair involved 100,000+/- peasants converging in groups on Phnom Penh to petition the King for lower taxes. • The murder in 1925 of the French Resident, Felix Louis Bardez, in a village in Kompong Chhnang should have been more predictable.
Free Khmer Movement • Son Ngoc Thanh was the leader of the Free Khmer Movement. • He founded the first Khmer-language newspaper in Phnom Penh, Nagaravatta in 1936. • He was a leader in the Buddhist Institute of Phnom Penh. • In 1945, he organized the Khmer Issarak with 2,000 armed volunteers. • He returned from exile in France to actively campaigned against Cambodia being part of the French Union in 1951-52 and founded a second newspaper, Khmer Krok. Son Ngoc Thanh
1942 Monk Demonstration • In 1942, a 1,000 persons + (half monks) marched in Phnom Penh demanding the release of a monk arrested for allegedly plotting against the French. • The leader of the demonstration was Pach Chhoeum, who was sentenced to life in prison for presenting the French resident superior with a petition demanding the monk’s release. • Son Ngoc Than who planned the demonstrations escaped to Thailand and eventually Tokyo. • The Japanese anti-colonial attitude may have encouraged the demonstrations.
Questions • Q1. What territorial entities composed the French Union? • A1. Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina Laos and Cambodia. • Q2. What were the reforms required by the treaty the French imposed on Cambodia in 1884? When were they enforced? • A2. Aboliton of slavery, private land ownership and provincial French residents. After King Norodom’s death in 1904.
More Questions • Q3. What was so shocking to the French about the 1916 Affair? • A3. There was no prior warning of dissatisfaction. • Q4. What led to Resident Bardez’s murder in 1925? • A4. His attempt to publicly humiliate Cambodians from whom he was trying to collect taxes. • Q5. Who was the leader of the Free Khmer movement? • A5. Son Ngoc Thanh.
Still More Questions • Q6. What sentence did the French impose on Pach Chhoeum for his role in the Monk’s Demonstration? • A6. Life in prison.
Norodom Sihanouk • During his reign, Cambodia became a constitutional monarch (1947) and achieved limited autonomy as part of the French Union (1949). • He became a highly sympathetic figure and a much loved monarch and hero. • In 1953, he conducted a “Crusade for Independence,” visiting Paris, Washington and New York before going into self-imposed exile in Bangkok. It was only by granting complete independence that the French were able to induce him to return. King/Prince Norodom Sihanouk (b.1922; r. 1941-55, 1993-2004)
Geneva Accords • Dien Bien Phu fell in May 1954 leading to collapse of support by the French public for the war against the Viet Minh. A peace conference involving all of Indochina was held in Geneva. • The conference produced the Geneva Accords in July 1954. Under the accords: • a. The French and Vietnamese ceased hostilities. • b. Vietnam was divided into North and South, the Viet Minh withdrew to the North and the French withdrew their forces from Indochina. • c. All former French colonies in Indochina were declared independent.
Keeping Cambodia Independent • With respect to Cambodia, the Geneva Accords specified: • The withdrawal of all Viet Minh forces in 90 days. • Demobilization of Cambodian resistance forces in 30 days. • Withdrawal of all French and Vietnamese forces by October 1954. • Cambodia refused to accept the demand of absolute and complete neutrality as the price of the withdrawal of Vietnamese forces from its territory.
Sihanouk Abdicates • Sihanouk resigned on March 2, 1955 in favor of his father, Norodom Suramarit, and took the title “Prince” so that he could directly participate in politics. • Sihanouk formed the Sangkum Reastr Niyum (Popular Socialist Community), aka, Sangkum to combat Son Ngoc Thanh’s Khmer Independence party and the leftists “Citizen’s Party. • The Sangkum party won 83% of the vote.
Sangkum Party Platform • Sihanouk’s ideology was expressed in the Sangkum platform. • Nationalism. • Loyalty to the monarchy. • Struggle against injustice and corruption. • Protection of Theravada Buddhism. • Karma as an explanation of social and economic inequalities and hope for the next life.
Sihanouk’s Policies • Sihanouk was suspicious of U.S. intentions and considered Red China to be a valuable ally. • His admiration of China led to “royal socialism:” Nationalized Banking and Insurance. Created National Export-Import Corporation. • He opened the Sangkum to multiple candidates. A surge in conservative votes resulted and Lon Nol became Prime Minister in 1966 and again in 1969. Lon Nol (1913-85)
Questions • Q1. Why did Cambodia refuse to accept demands for its absolute neutrality at the 1954 Geneva Conference? • A1. It would have compromised Cambodia’s sovereignty and right of self-defense. • Q2. Under which king did Cambodia become a constitutional monarchy (1947) and achieve independence (1953)? • A2. King Norodom Sihanouk
More Questions • Q3. Why did Norodom Sihanouk resign as king in 1955? • A3. He wanted to participate in politics. • Q4. What political party did Prince Sihanouk establish? • A4. Sangkum Reastr Niyum (Popular Socialist Community), aka, Sangkum.
And More Questions • Q5. What was Sangkum’s explanation for social and economic inequality? • A5. Karma. • Q6. What led Sihanouk to indulge in “royal socialism?” • A6. Sihanouk’s admiration for Maoist China. • Q7. How did Lon Nol become Prime Minister? • A7. Sihanouk opened Sangkum to multiple candidates leading to a rise in the conservative vote. Lon Nol was backed by the military.
Nonaligned Foreign Policy In the 1960’s, Sihanouk sought to play one power against another to retain Cambodia’s independence. • 1954 – Considered but rejected joining SEATO. • 1955 – Accepted U.S. military aid and a MAAG. • 1963 – Expelled the MAAG and severed relations with Saigon in favor of Hanoi and the NFLSVN. • 1965 – Severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. • 1966 _ Sihanouk agreed to a PAVN/ NLF Base area in Cambodia and the use of the port at Sihanoukville. • 1967 – Signaled no objection to U.S. hot pursuit of communist forces and bombing. • 1969 – Reestablished diplomatic relations with U.S.
Lon Nol’s Coup d’etat • On March 18, 1970, Lon Nol staged a coup d’etat, ousting Prince Sihanouk as head of state. • He established close ties with the U.S. and SVN and agreed to their forces operating on Cambodian territory. • In October 1970, he declared Cambodia a republic, ending the monarchy. • Pitted FANK against PAVN/NFL forces. • Sihanouk sought refuge in China and aligned himself with the Khmer Rouge.
The War In Cambodian • The PAVN/NLF’s base area grew to encompass about 1/4th of Cambodia. • The area was secretly bombed by B-52’s under the “Menu Series” from March 1969 to May 1970. • The ground incursion involved 30,000 U.S. & ARVN troops and lasted from May thru July 1970. Huge amounts of equipment and supplies were destroyed, but COSVN headquarters was never found. • U.S. air operations continued in Cambodian into 1973. President Richard Nixon explained the April 1970 incursion of U.S. ground forces into Cambodia in terms of a future withdrawal from SEA.