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Prologue: The Story of Psychology A Short History, But a Long Past - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Prologue: The Story of Psychology A Short History, But a Long Past. Definition of Psychology. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Ancient Greeks. Aristotle derived ideas from observations Said that knowledge is not preexisting

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The Story of Psychology

A Short History, But a Long Past

Definition of psychology
Definition of Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Ancient greeks
Ancient Greeks

  • Aristotle derived ideas from observations

  • Said that knowledge is not preexisting

  • Developed ideas about personality, memory, motivation, and emotion

Prescientific psychology
Prescientific Psychology

  • Scientific Revolution

    • The influence of Newton

    • The influence of Locke

      • Empiricism

      • Knowledge comes from experience via the senses

      • Science flourishes through observation and experiment

Foundations of modern psychology
Foundations of Modern Psychology

  • Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Liepzig (c. 1879)

Contemporary psychology
Contemporary Psychology

  • Psychology’s Perspectives

    • Biological

      • Neuroscience

      • Evolutionary

      • Behavior Genetics

    • Behavioral

    • Psychodynamic

    • Cognitive

    • Socio-cultural

Contemporary psychology1

Psychology’s Perspectives

A lot depends on your viewpoint

Contemporary Psychology

From schools to perspectives












From “schools” to “perspectives”

Cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective

  • Structuralism

    • Studied immediate experience

    • Used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

    • Founded Wundt’s student E.B Titchener

Cognitive perspective1
Cognitive Perspective

  • Functionalism

  • Focused on the function of mental processes

  • Founded by William James in 1898

  • Heavily influenced by Charles Darwin

Cognitive perspective2
Cognitive Perspective

  • Gestalt

    • Founded by Max Wertheimer and others in 1910

    • Argued that the analysis of the mind could not be broken into its component parts

    • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

      • The mind seeks to synthesize information

      • The mind is an active agent, not a passive receptacle

Gestalt psychology
Gestalt Psychology

Cognitive perspective3
Cognitive Perspective

  • Cognitive Perspective

    • Origins can be traced to Gestalt Psychology

    • Study the intervening mental processes between stimulus inputs and response outputs

    • Significant contributions made in the areas of language, development, and memory

    • Jean Piaget: child development expert

Behavioral perspective
Behavioral Perspective

  • Early Behaviorism

    • Founded by American John Watson in 1913

    • Shifted attention from mental activity to observable behavior

    • Behavior can be shaped by manipulating and changing the environment

Watson on behaviorism
Watson on Behaviorism

“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take anyone at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select; doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant. And yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, tendencies, abilities, and race of his ancestors”

- 1925

Behavioral perspective1
Behavioral Perspective

  • Behavioral Psychology

    • Explain behavior by assessing the effects of external stimuli

    • Deal with directly observable behavior

    • B.F. Skinner: most influential behaviorist

Psychodynamic perspective
Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Psychoanalysis

    • Developed outside the university setting

    • Founded by Sigmund Freud in 1895

    • Freud concluded that unconscious mental forces direct our behavior

    • Utilized free-association and hypnosis

Psychodynamic perspective1
Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Psychodynamic perspective

    • Human behavior is primarily determined by unconscious processes

    • Theory not based on experimental evidence and many aspects are untestable

    • Influential to modern psychotherapy

    • Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler prominent “Neo-Freudians”

Biological perspectives
Biological Perspectives

  • Biological Perspective

    • Neuroscience

    • Evolutionary

    • Behavior genetics

  • Explain behavior by describing underlying biochemical and neurological causes

  • Reductionists: observable behavior reduced to physiological explanations

  • Roger Sperry: won Nobel Prize for split-brain research

Social cultural perspective
Social-Cultural Perspective

  • Social-Cultural

    • How behavior and thinking vary across situations and culture

    • Recognizes the power of the situation in determining human behavior

    • Studies the interaction between the environment and actions

    • Albert Bandura, Philip Zimbardo

Other perspectives
Other Perspectives

  • Humanistic approach ???????

    • Emerged in the 1950’s

    • Viewed behavior as a product of free will and opposed determinism of behaviorism and psychoanalysis

    • Focused on mental health and positive outcomes

    • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

    • Currently reemerging as Positive Psychology