Personality. Chapter 14 Review. Purpose of Personality Theories. All of the following are purposes of all personality theories except Organize various traits Explain differences between people Determine how life can be improved Catalogue the various personality traits .
Personality Chapter 14 Review
Purpose of Personality Theories • All of the following are purposes of all personality theories except • Organize various traits • Explain differences between people • Determine how life can be improved • Catalogue the various personality traits
Psychoanalytic Theory • The father of psychoanalytic theory is • Carl Jung • Sigmund Freud • Alfred Adler • Abraham Maslow
Psychoanalytic Theory • The id represents • Things you do through instinct • Personality traits you learned from your parents • Basic instincts to kill and create • Your moral conscience
Psychoanalytic Theory • Kayla is five years old, and her mum just had a baby. Kayla was potty trained, but has suddenly started peeing her pants. She is • Projecting her insecurities • Denying her insecurities • Regressing • Sublimating
Psychoanalytic Theory • The job of the ego is to • Balance out the demands of the id and superego • Suppress the needs of the id • Determine what defence mechanism to use • Be the moral guidance for a person.
Psychoanalytic Theory • According to Freud’s defence mechanisms, what is the only healthy way to manage inappropriate feelings or desires? • Rationalization • Intellectualization • Displacement • Sublimation
Psychoanalytic Theory • The id, ego, and superego operate on what principles respectively? • Dominate, regulate, frustrate • Pleasure, reality, morality • Pleasure, morality, reality • Reality, morality, pleasure
Psychoanalytic Theory • Which of the following is NOT one of Freud’s defence mechanisms? • Reaction formation • Repression • Denial • Speculation
Learning Theories • According to Behaviourism, contingencies of reinforcement are • Conditions that reinforce behaviour • Punishments to dissuade behaviour • People who reinforce negative behaviour • Thought patterns that reinforce the individual’s own behaviour.
Learning Theories • According to Behaviourism, people _________________their contingencies of reinforcement. • Are aware of • Choose • Are unaware of • Are somewhat aware of
Learning Theories • In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is • Our perception of our ability to succeed • Our overall view of ourselves • The ability to motivate oneself • Awareness of oneself
Learning Theories • According to Bandura, if outcome expectations are positive, • The individual will have positive self-esteem • The individual will keep trying to succeed • The individual will give up • The individual has unrealistic perceptions
Humanistic Theories • Humanistic theories make the assumption that • All people are equal • All people are inherently good • All people are inherently motivated • All people are inherently goal oriented
Humanistic Theories • All of the following are traits of self-actualized individuals except • Need for approval from others • Spontaneity • Problem-centered • Few but deep relationships
Humanistic Theories • Which of the following is a criticism of Maslow’s theories? • Assumption of goodness is an intrusion of values • Eurocentric definition of self-actualization • Sample selection is not random • All of the above
Humanistic Theories • According to Carl Rogers, what is “unconditional positive regard”? • People will always remember you • People tend to treat others politely to maintain harmony. • Acceptance of an individual or the self for virtues and flaws • Over-permissive parenting
Humanistic Theories • According to Rogers, “conditions of worth” are • Parameters we put on our value as individuals • Conditions we put on ourselves to be valued • Conditions others put on us that must be met before they will accept us • Checklists we create to determine the value or worth of another individual
Cognitive Theories • A schema is • How we perceive ourselves • How we perceive the world • How we perceive others • How we think others perceive us
Trait Theories • Trait theories makes two assumptions about people: • People can change who they are; personalities are static. • Traits can be exclusive to each other; traits are finite • Personalities can be catalogued; behaviour can be changed • All traits apply to all people; traits can be measured and quantified
Trait Theories • According to Gordon Allport, • Cardinal traits make us predictable in most situations. • Cardinal traits define who we are. • Cardinal traits are not deemed central to the personality • Cardinal traits are shared by all people.
Trait Theories • Allport’s “central trait” is similar to Raymond Cattell’s • Primary trait • Secondary trait • Surface trait • Source trait