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Political Parties. AP Ch 9. Objectives. 1. Define and compare to Europe 2. Trace development of 2 party system through 4 major periods 3. Describe the structure and differences of the 2 major parties 4. Investigate 3rd or minor political parties. Definition (2).

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  • 1. Define and compare to Europe
  • 2. Trace development of 2 party system through 4 major periods
  • 3. Describe the structure and differences of the 2 major parties
  • 4. Investigate 3rd or minor political parties
definition 2
Definition (2)
  • A. Group of people who seek to control govt by holding public office
  • B. Group of people, joined together by common principles, in order to affect certain policies
  • Difference?
  • Where do the US parties fit?
election oriented v issue oriented
Election Oriented v. Issue Oriented
  • US parties are motivated by elections
  • Europeans have much “stronger” parties
  • Much more “centralized” than US and better at mobilizing voters
notes history take notes to use on history quiz
Notes/ History Take Notes to use on history quiz
  • 4 major periods of party domination and Realignments pg. 201-206
5 major functions
5 Major Functions
  • 1. Nominating Candidates
  • Makes them different than other political groups
  • 2. Informing and Activating Supporters
  • “Spin and Spark”
  • 3. Bonding Agent Function
  • Screening candidates
functions cont
Functions (cont.)
  • 4. Governing
  • In many ways US is govt by party
  • Partisanship (strong support of the party and its issues) links branches, organizes elections
  • 5. Watchdog Function
  • Party out of power criticizes party in power plays the role of “loyal opposition”
party realignments
Party Realignments
  • AKA critical periods
  • A sharp, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties
  • Issues change, and so do the people who vote
there have been 5 realignments
There have been 5 Realignments
  • 1. 1800
  • 2. 1828
  • 3. 1860
  • 4. 1896
  • 5. 1932
2 types of realignments
2 types of Realignments
  • 1. When one major party is badly defeated and a new party emerges
  • (1800, 1860)
  • 2. When major parties stay, but the voters switch to the other party (1896, 1932)
1 ideological
1. Ideological
  • Comprehensive view of American political system
  • Long lasting
  • Not concerned with election
  • Marxist
  • Libertarian
2 splinter
2. Splinter
  • Bull Moose
  • Dixiecrats
3 single issue
3. Single Issue
  • Free Soil
  • Know Nothings
  • Right to Life
4 economic protest
4. Economic Protest
  • Usually find a real or imagined enemy
  • Greenbacks, Populists
major party decline
Major Party Decline
  • The # of People who strongly id w/ party is declining
  • Split ticket voting is increased (unheard of in 1800’s)
  • “Office bloc” ballot replaced the party-column ballot
national party structure today
National Party Structure Today
  • 2 Party system is still strong
  • NOT arranged like a big corporation
  • Both Parties have a national convention that meets every 4 years
  • Both have a national committee
congressional campaign committee
Congressional Campaign Committee
  • Help candidates win election (in congress) $$
  • National Chairman handles day to day activities
republicans organize
Republicans Organize
  • Recruiting in the 70’s
  • Elaborate fundraising
  • Structured
  • Bureaucratized
democrats disorganized
Democrats Disorganized
  • Fragmented their power and influence to allow for more diversity
  • Factionalized
republicans use technology
Republicans use technology
  • Computerized mailing lists of donors
  • RNC used the $ to run a national consulting firm
  • Democrats copied
  • Increased the importance of “soft money”- $ given to the party, not direct to candidates
internet funds
Internet Funds
  • 2004 Primaries, Howard Dean raised $30 million, by donations of under $100
  • (and screamed about it)
  • Obama? Billion?
geographical support
Geographical support
  • Dems have moved support from the south to the North and West
  • Repubs have moved support from the East to the South and Southwest
  • Result: Dems move left and Repubs move right
national conventions
National Conventions
  • National Committee selects time and place
  • Sets the number of delegates and how they are to be chosen
  • Can influence what candidate is selected
apportioning delegates news article
Apportioning Delegates (News article)
  • Extremely complex
  • Dems give extra votes to large states
  • Repubs give extra votes to loyal states
reforms add to the middle class split
Reforms add to the Middle Class split
  • Repubs traditional conservative MC
  • Dems- new liberal MC
2 party system why
2 Party System- Why?
  • Scholars disagree
  • 2 Possible Explanations:
  • 1. Election system/ laws
  • 2. Public Opinion
review organization of parties
Review organization of parties
  • Late 60’s early 70’s
stucture of parties
Stucture of Parties
  • Dems- more factional
  • Repubs- more bureaucratic
2 party system pretty rare
2 Party System Pretty Rare
  • Only about 15 countries have it
how to gauge strength of parties
How to gauge strength of parties
  • How many ID
  • Organization
  • Recruiting
  • Election of leaders of all branches
party as label
Party as LABEL
  • Most of the time, it comes down to the label function- (key to understanding party’s function)
differences between us parties and others
Differences between US parties and others
  • Federalism effect- more decentralized
  • US has primaries (most states)- not party leaders who nominate
  • Culture- US parties have less influence in our lives limited to voting
  • Pres appointment power is limited
  • Pres and congress do not run together
political labels and categories
Political Labels and Categories
  • How people view policy regarding the economy
  • How people view policy on civil rights and race relations
  • How people view public and political conduct
1 pure liberals
1. Pure Liberals
  • Liberal on both econ and personal conduct
  • Want govt to reduce inequality
  • Regulate business, tax rich
  • Cure economic causes of crime
  • Pro- choice, rights of the accused
  • Broad First Amendment Rights
traits of pure liberals more likely to be
Traits of Pure LiberalsMore likely to be:
  • Younger
  • College educated
  • Non- religious
pure conservative
Pure Conservative
  • Conservative on both econ and personal conduct
  • Want to cut welfare
  • Allow free markets to regulate itself
  • Keep taxes low
  • ‘lock up” criminals
  • Stop anti- social conduct
traits more likely to be
Traits: More likely to be:
  • Older
  • Higher incomes
  • White
  • Midwestern
  • Conservative on economic issues
  • Liberal on social issues
  • Want small weak govt that has little or no control over any aspect of our lives
traits more likely to be1
Traits: More likely to be..
  • Young
  • College educated
  • White
  • Higher incomes
  • No religion
  • Live in west
  • Liberal on econ matters
  • Conservative on social issues
  • Want govt to reduce econ inequality and control big business
  • Regulate personal conduct
  • Lock up criminals
  • Permit school prayer
traits more likely to be2
Traits: More likely to be..
  • Older
  • Poorly educated
  • Low income
  • Religious
  • Live in South or Midwest
ch 9 test
Ch 9 Test
  • Read all ch 9 except 201-204
70 dem reforms
70’ Dem reforms
  • Weaken party leaders influence
  • Increase rank and file power
  • Republicans out perform Dems in everything but diversity
delegate selection
Delegate selection
  • Changing rules has made the Dems more liberal and Repubs more conservative
review 1980 s hunt commission
Review 1980’s (Hunt Commission)
  • goal was to increase the influence of party leaders in the pres. Selection process
  • Increased Superdelegates (elected officials and party leaders who are not required to pledge themselves in advance)
  • Local levels of parties have been dying out
  • Political machines no longer exist (strong around turn of century)
  • Pol machines characterized by patronage, trading votes for favors, corruption, not ideology
state and local parties
State and Local parties
  • The Machine
  • -high degree of leadership
  • -
  • Personal Following
  • Solidary Group (social)
  • Sponsored Party (Detroit)
  • Remember- Repubs have been more successful, but Dems are catching up
  • Both parties re-doubled their soft money fundraising
history general
History- General
  • Party system experience broad changes (1932,1968) with parties rising and declining over the years
  • New Deal coalition and the break in 1968