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Energy from Waste. Based in part on: Waste to Energy Plants Outweighing the Negative Léokham O’Connor Florida Gulf Coast University. Mass burn technologies operating at extremely high temperatures Initially - no filtration for hazardous air emissions No federal or state regulations

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Presentation Transcript
Energy from waste
Energy from Waste

Based in part on:

Waste to Energy Plants Outweighing the Negative

Léokham O’Connor Florida Gulf Coast University

Mass burn technologies operating at extremely high temperatures

Initially - no filtration for hazardous air emissions

No federal or state regulations

Now advanced technology such as the bag filtration and monitoring systems

More stringent EPA standards


The U.S. burns 14 percent of its trash in waste-to-energy plants.

Denmark, burns 54 percent.

Waste Energy plants - a multi-purpose energy solution for municipal solid waste

Better alternative than landfills


  • U.S. - 5% of the world’s population plants.

  • U.S. - 30% of the world’s garbage

  • 63,000 garbage trucks daily

  • 90,000 lbs of waste individual lifetime

  • Less than 2% is recycled

  • Every year

    • 3.5 billion lbs of carpet

    • 3.3 trillion lbs of CO2 gas

    • 19 billion lbs polystyrene foam peanuts

    • 28 billion lbs of food


Waste incinerators
Waste Incinerators plants.

1865 - The first waste incinerator was built in Michigan

1874 - The “Destructor” was Britain’s attempt to burn waste to produce energy

1905 - New York uses waste incinerator to create electricity and light the Williamsburg Bridge

1930’s – Incinerators too expensive, making waste dumps a more viable option


Federal regulations
Federal Regulations plants.

  • 1970 - Clean Air Act regulates emissions

  • 1976 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    • Control of hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal

  • 1986 – Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)

    • Strict guidelines for municipalities; landfill design

  • 1990 - Emissions defined - MACT standards (maximum allowable emissions)


  • 2005 epa regulations
    2005 EPA Regulations plants.

    2005 - The EPA amends national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for hazardous waste combustors under section 112 of the Clean Air Act.

    more stringent requirements for the bag leak detection, air pollutants and other material residue from incinerators (EPA, 2009).


    Stimulus bill 2008
    Stimulus Bill 2008 plants.

    The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 takes effect.

    Legislation extends tax credits for landfill gas and trash combustion facilities.

    It also provides new tax credits for those who purchase capital investment bonds in renewable energy facilities.


    Technology
    Technology plants.


    Operating wte plants in the u s
    Operating WTE Plants in the U.S. plants.

    States with Waste-to-Energy plants HaveHigher Recycling Rates


    Environmental concerns
    Environmental Concerns plants.

    • Dioxin a major concern

      • Toxic chemical that can cause immune and nervous system damage.

      • By-product of manufacture, molding, or burning of Cl-containing organic materials

      • Toxicity is comparable to radioactive waste

      • Temperatures over 1800 F destroy dioxins (Frederick County Government, 2008).


    Emissions
    Emissions plants.

    Air Emissions of Waste-To-Energy and Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    (Pounds per Megawatt Hour)

    (includes ‘avoided emissions’)


    Cons plants.

    • Release of Dioxins

      • Waste Energy < 1 % Total

    • NOx and Sox emissions

    • Metal vapor (mercury) emissions

    • Perceived reduction in recycling

    • Odors, pest attraction


    Pros plants.

    • Create revenue

    • Reduce landfill impacts; hauling distances

    • Constant supply of resources (Trash)

    • 26 States legally define Waste to Energy as a renewable resource

    • Ash can be recycled (construction)

    • 1500 tons of trash/day produces about electricity to power around 40,000 homes

    • ideal co-generation system



    Landfill methane recovery plants.

    Madison County, NY


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