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A Democratic Revolution 1820-1844. End of the Era of Good Feelings. Era of Good Feelings Starts after War of 1812 One political party No political infighting American Nationalism (We Beat the British AGAIN) Era of Good Feelings ends with (1820): - Renewed debate over states rights

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End of the era of good feelings
End of the Era of Good Feelings

  • Era of Good Feelings

    • Starts after War of 1812

    • One political party

      • No political infighting

      • American Nationalism (We Beat the British AGAIN)

        Era of Good Feelings ends with (1820):

        - Renewed debate over states rights

        -Rise of Jacksonian Democracy

        -Sectional divide between North and South

The rise of popular politics
The Rise Of Popular Politics

  • Expansion of the franchise was the most dramatic symbol of the Democratic Revolution.

  • As early as the 1810s, some states had extended the right to vote to almost all white men, bring many farmers and wage earners into the political arena by ending tradition property qualifications for voting.

  • Nowhere else in the world did ordinary men have so much power.

Decline of notables and rise of political parties
Decline of Notables and Rise of Political Parties

  • The American Revolution weakened the deferential society of the colonial era, but it did not overthrow it.

  • Only two state constitutions (VT and PA) allowed all male tax-payers to vote; and even in those states, families in the low and middle ranks continued to accept the leadership of their social “betters.”

  • Local notables managed elections by building up an “interest”: lending money to small farmers, giving business to storekeepers, and treating their tenants to rum at election time.

  • This was a gentry-dominated system that excluded men without wealth and powerful family connections from running for office.

Advance of democracy
Advance of Democracy

  • The struggle to expand the suffrage began in the 1810s, when reformers in MD challenged local notables in the language of Revolutionary-era republicans, condemning property qualifications as a “tyranny” that endowed “one class of men with privileges which are denied to another.”

  • These reformers began to elect men who dressed simply and endorsed democracy, even if those politicians favored policies that benefited those with substantial wealth.

  • Smallholding farmers and ambitious laborers in the Midwest and Southwest pushed forward this challenge to the traditional hierarchical social and political order.

Advance of democracy1
Advance of Democracy

  • Once in public office, men from modest backgrounds enacted laws that restricted imprisonment for debt, kept taxes low, and allowed farmers to claim squatters’ rights to unoccupied land.

  • By the mid-1820s, only a few states – NC, VA, and RI – required the ownership of freehold property for voting, while most other states had instituted universal white male suffrage.

  • Democratic politics was contentious and often corrupt as well.

  • Powerful entrepreneurs and speculators – both notables and self-made men – demanded government assistance for their business enterprises and paid bribes to get it.

Martin van buren and the rise of political parties
Martin Van Buren and the Rise of Political Parties

  • The appearance of political parties encouraged debate on issues of government policy.

  • But as the power of notables waned, political parties became more prominent, and by the 1820s, parties in a number of states were highly disciplined organizations managed by professional politicians, often middle-class lawyers and journalists.

  • Martin Van Buren of NY was the chief architect of the emerging system of party government, first at the state and then at national level.

  • He rejected the traditional republican belief that political parties were dangerous and argued that the opposite was true.

    Having defended the legitimacy of political parties, Van Buren undertook to create one of his own.

  • From 1817-1821, he turned his “Bucktail” supporters into the first statewide political machine, the Albany Regency.

  • -When Van Buren and the Regency won control of the NY legislature in 1821, they acquired a political “interest” much greater than that of the notables – the power to appoint some 6,000 of their followers to positions in NY’s legal bureaucracy of judges, justices of the peace, sheriffs, deed commissioners, and coroners.

  • This was an example of a spoils system was fair, Van Buren said, because it would be “sometimes in favour of one party, and sometimes of another.”

    To ensure the passage of important legislation, Van Buren insisted on party discipline and required elected officials to follow the dictates of the party caucus. Cannot Vote against party lines


  • What are the positives and negatives of a political party

  • List one modern political parties and state their views:

  • Do we still have the Spoils System today in Government and if so how?

Election of 1824
Election of 1824

  • After the War of 1812, the aristocratic Federalist Party virtually disappeared, and the Republican Party broke up into competing factions.

    - As the election of 1824, approached, no fewer than five candidates, all calling themselves Republicans, campaigned for the presidency. They were…

John quincy adams
John Quincy Adams

  • OCCUPATION: Lawyer, Diplomat, U.S. President, U.S. Representative

  • BIRTH DATE: July 11, 1767

  • DEATH DATE: February 23, 1848

  • EDUCATION: University of Leiden

  • PLACE OF BIRTH: Braintree, Massachusetts

  • PLACE OF DEATH: Washington, D.C.

  • FULL NAME: John Quincy Adams

  • NICKNAME: "Old Man Eloquent"

  • NICKNAME: "The Abolitionist"

  • AKA: John Adams

John c calhoun
John C Calhoun

  • OCCUPATION: U.S. Vice President, U.S. Representative

  • BIRTH DATE: March 18, 1782

  • DEATH DATE: March 31, 1850

  • EDUCATION: Yale College

  • PLACE OF BIRTH: Abbeville, South Carolina

  • PLACE OF DEATH: Washington, D.C.

William h crawford
William H Crawford

  • Born: February 24, 1772, Amherst County, VA

  • Died: September 15, 1834, Crawford, GA

  • Party: Democratic-Republican Party

  • Spouse: Susanna Gerardine

  • Previous office: Senator (GA) 1807–1813

Henry clay
Henry Clay

  • Born: April 13, 1777, Hanover County, VA

  • Died: June 29, 1852, Washington, D.C.

  • Buried: July 10, 1852, Lexington Cemetery, Lexington, KY

  • Education: College of William and Mary

  • Children: Henry Clay, Jr., James Brown Clay, John Morrison Clay, More

  • Previous offices: Senator (KY) 1849–1852, More

Andrew jackson
Andrew Jackson

Born: March 15, 1767, Waxhaws

  • Died: June 8, 1845, Nashville, TN

  • Presidential term: March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837

  • Education: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

  • Spouse: Rachel Jackson (m. 1794–1828)

  • Nicknames: King Mob, The Hero of New Orleans, Old Hickory

Presidential candidates
Presidential Candidates

  • -          John Quincy Adams

  • -          Enjoyed national recognition, and his MA origin gave him the electoral votes of New England.

  • -          John C. Calhoun

  • -          Withdrew from the race when he realized Crawford’s popularity in the south, and endorsed Andrew Jackson.

  • -          William H. Crawford

  • -          He spoke for the south, and feared the “consolidation” of political power in Washington.

  • -          He denounced the American System

Presendential candidates
Presendential Candidates

  •   Henry Clay

  • -          Formed his candidacy around domestic issues.

  • -          He also promoted the American System, an integrated program of national economic development similar to the Commonwealth policies pursued by state governments.

  •  Andrew Jackson

  • -         Was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans, he benefited from the wave of patriotism that flowed from the War of 1812.

Result of 1824 election
Result of 1824 Election

  • Because no candidate received an absolute majority in the election, the decision fell to the House of Representatives. And when they met in February of 1825, Henry Clay assembled a coalition of congressmen from New England and the Ohio River Valley that voted Adams into the presidency.

  • In response to Clay’s help, Adams appointed Clay his secretary of state, then the traditional stepping-stone to presidency.

President john quincy adams
President John Quincy Adams

  • Adams called for bold national leadership, and that everyone needed to “improve the conditions of himself and his fellow men.”

  • He called for the establishment of a national university in Washington, extensive scientific explorations in the Far West, and a uniform standard of weights and measures.

President john quincy adams1
President John Quincy Adams

  • - More importantly, he endorsed Henry Clay’s American System of national economic development and its three key elements…

  • 1. Protective tariffs to stimulate manufacturing.

  • 2. Federally subsidized roads and canals to facilitate commerce.

  • 3. A national bank to control credit and provide a uniform currency.

Resistance to the american system
Resistance to the American System

  • Manufacturers, entrepreneurs, and growers in the Northeast and Midwest welcomed Adams’s policies, but they won little support in the South, where planters opposed protective tariffs because…

  • They raised the price of manufactures.

  • Smallholders feared powerful banks that could force them into bankruptcy.

  • - Other politicians objected to the American System on constitutional grounds.

    • One of these politicians was James Madison, who argued that these projects were the sole responsibility of the states,

The tariff battle
The Tariff Battle

  • A large battle of the Adams administration came over tariffs.

  • The tariffs of 1816 and 1824 taxed imports of cheap English cotton cloth and imports of iron goods/more-expensive woolen and cotton textiles respectively.

  • These ever increasing tariffs enraged the South, because as the world’s cheapest producer of raw cotton, the South did not need a tariff to protect its main industry.

Adams and the tariff
Adams and the Tariff

  • Furthermore, because the tariffs caused prices of manufactures to increase, southern planters lost about $100 million a year.

  • - Ignoring the Jacksonians’ support for the Tariff of 1828, most southerners blamed President Adams for the new act.

  • - Adams primary weakness was his increasingly out-of-date political style, as he was the last notable to serve in the White House. He was aloof, moralistic, and paternalistic.

  • - Rather than “run” for reelection in 1828, Adams “stood” for it, telling supporters, “If my country wants my services, she must ask for them.”

The democracy and the election of 1828
The Democracy” and the Election of 1828

  • 1. Southerners refused to support Adams’s bid for a second term: most were offended that he supported the land rights of Indians and blamed him for the new tariff.

  • 2. Adams’s primary weakness was his increasingly out-of-date political style;

  • For example, he felt that the country should ask for his services.

Election of 1828
Election of 1828

  • Jacksoniansinitially called themselves “Democratic Republicans” but eventually became simply “Democrats,” and their name conveyed their message that through them the middling majority—the democracy—would rule.

  • Jackson’s appeal as a candidate was his message of

  • equal rights and popular rule,

  • his hostility to business corporations and

  • to Clay’s American System,

  • his animus toward Native Americans, and

  • his personal preference for a “judicious” tariff.

  • Jackson received 178 of 261 electoral votes and became the first president from a western state; however, the massive outpouring of popular support for Jackson

  • frightened men of wealth and influence.

The jacksonian presidency 1829 1837
The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829–1837

  • A. Jackson’s Agenda: Rotation and Decentralization

  • 1. To decide policy, Jackson primarily relied on his so-called “Kitchen Cabinet”—an informal group of advisors.

  • 2. Using the spoils system, Jackson created a loyal and disciplined national party and dispensed government jobs to aid his friends and win support for his legislative program.

  • 3. Jackson’s main priority was to destroy Clay’s American System.

  • 4. He rejected national support for transportation projects, which he also opposed on constitutional grounds, and in 1830 vetoed four internal improvement bills.

C the bank war
C. The Bank War

  • By collecting notes and regularly demanding specie, the Second Bank of the United States kept state banks from issuing too many notes—preventing monetary inflation and higher prices.

  • 2. Most Americans did not understand the regulatory role of the Second Bank and feared its ability to force bank closures, which left them holding worthless paper.

The bank war
The Bank War

In 1832 Jackson’s opponents in Congress persuaded the Second Bank’s president, Nicholas Biddle, to seek an early extension of the Bank’s charter with the hope of luring Jackson into a veto that would split the Democrats just before the 1832 elections.

- Jackson vetoed the bank bill and became a public hero; he declared that the Second Bank promoted the advancement of the few at the expense of the many.

Bank war
Bank War

  • Jackson had Secretary of the Treasury Roger B. Taney withdraw the government’s gold from the Second Bank and deposit it in state “pet” banks.

  • 7. The “bank war” escalated into an all-out political battle. Jackson’s opponents in the Senate passed a resolution censuring the president for acting independently of Congress, although Jackson ultimately won out.

  • When the Second Bank’s national Charter expired in 1836, Jackson prevented its renewal.

  • 8. Jackson had destroyed both national banking and the American System of protective tariffs and internal improvements. The result was a profound reduction In the purview and powers of the national government.

Indian removal
Indian Removal

  • In the late 1820s whites in both the West and East called for the resettlement o the Indians west of the Mississippi River

  • Indian peoples still controlled vast tracts of ancestral land and were determined to retain them.

  • the Georgia legislature wanted the promise fulfilled to extinguish Indian landholdings in the state in return for its 1802 giving up of western land claims.

Indian removal1
Indian Removal

  • Jackson gave full support to Georgia. He declared states were sovereign within their borders and he withdrew the federal troops that had protected Indian enclaves.

    Jackson then pushed through Congress the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided territory in modern-day Oklahoma and Kansas to Native American who would give up their ancestral holdings on the promise that they could live on the new lands forever.

Indian removal2
Indian Removal

  • In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) the Supreme Court denied Indian independence; however, in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) the Supreme Court voided Georgia’s extension of state law over the Indians

  • the national government had forced the removal of most eastern Indian peoples to the West.

Jackson s impact
Jackson’s Impact

Jackson permanently expanded the authority of the nation’s chief executive, using the rhetoric of popular sovereignty to declare that the president is the direct representative of the American people.

2. Appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court by Jackson, Roger B. Taney persuaded the Court To give Constitutional legitimacy to Jackson’s policies of antimonopoly and states’ rights

  • Most states mounted a constitutional revolution—extending the vote to all white men, reapportioning legislatures on the basis of population, and mandating the election of officials.

  • . Jacksonian “populists” embraced a small government outlook, based on classical liberalism,or laissez-faire; in public, at least, they attacked government-granted special privileges and celebrated the power of ordinary people.


  • 1. The rise of the Democracy and Jackson’s tumultuous presidency sparked the creation in the mid-1830s of a second national party—the Whigs.

  • 2. Although a heterogeneous group initially, the Whigs gradually elaborated a distinct vision—a political world dominated by men of ability and wealth, chosen by talent, not birth. Whigs appealed to evangelical Protestants and upwardly mobile groups.

  • 3. Northern Whigs called for a return to Clay and Adams’s American System; Southern Whigs advocated economic development but did not support high tariffs and social mobility.

  • 4. Many Whig voters previously were Anti-Masons, members of a powerful but short-lived political movement of the late 1820s.


  • Examine the arguments of the states and Federal gov’t over the policies of the Jackson

  • 1 Nullificiaton

  • Bank Crisis

  • Indian removal