Scientific Inquiry EOC REVIEW
B-1.1 Generate hypotheses based on credible, accurate, and relevant sources of scientific information.
Scientific Investigations • …follow a process to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables • This relationship is described in a hypothesis: If…(independent variable), then…(dependent variable). • Hypotheses are testable predictions. • Often based on the work of others…extends knowledge one tiny bit at a time.
Data • Used to form hypotheses must be… • Credible… • Accurate… • Relevant… • Two forms of data: • Qualitative: describes the qualities (observations) • Quantitative: numerical description (typically from a measurement so what is the difference between a precise measurement and an accurate one?
Sample Question Write a hypothesis that is your prediction about the relationship between the following independent variable (IV), and dependent variable (DV): • IV- size of a population of rabbits (prey animals) • DV- size of a population of foxes (predators)
B-1.2 Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.
Review Lab Safety Equipment (googles, mask, eye wash, shower, fire blanket, etc) • Go over flask, beaker, test tube, and graduated cylinder. • Which is used for most precise measurements? • Which is used for carrying out reactions and which is used for carrying large amounts of chemicals?
Sample Question • All of the following pieces of equipment EXCEPT for _____________ could be useful for transferring a liquid from one container to another. A. beaker B. funnel C. Petri dish D. Graduated cylinder
B-1.3 Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument
Measuring • Volume is measured in________? • Mass is measured in _________? • Temperature is measured in _________? • Length is measured in __________?
Sample Question • Which piece of glassware is never used for making measurements? • Graduated cylinder • Beaker • Test Tube • Erlenmeyer flask
B-1.4 Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.
Experimental Design • When designing an experiment, it will be necessary that you • State your purpose as a testable question. • Research relevant information. • State your hypothesis.
Experimental Design • When designing an experiment, it will also be necessary that you • Describe your experimental procedure, including: • Define independent and dependent variables. • Define controls. • Provide a step-by-step procedure. • List required materials. • Plan for recording and analyzing data. • Plan for a concluding statement.
Forming a Hypothesis • Forming a hypothesis for an experiment happens right along with defining the independent and dependent variables. • A hypothesis should be written as an “If… then…” statement. For example: • “If salt is added to a sample of water, then it should be able to be heated more quickly than a sample of water with no salt.”
Defining Independent and Dependent Variables • The independent variable (IV)is what you, the experimenter, will deliberately change or manipulate in your investigation. • The independent variable should be the only thing that is different between different experimental groups. For example: • Three samples of water are heated in identical containers, for identical periods of time, and at identical heats, but with different concentrations of salt (the IV).
Defining Independent and Dependent Variables • The dependent variable (DV)is what changes in response to the independent variable. • The DV is usually represented by the data you collect in an investigation. For example: • How quickly did they heat up relative to one another? • This difference in their heating rates was the • dependent variable.
Defining Constant Variables • Constant Variables represent the aspects of an experiment that are held constant through all trials. • Constant variables ensure that all aspects of trials in an experiment are identical, except for the IV. For example: • In the example, identical containers, amounts of water, length of heating, etc… • This ensures that any difference measured in the DV logically has to be caused by the IV. • A Control Group is used for Comparison Only
Sample Question Jane and David have decided to do an experiment testing how sunlight affects plant growth. The students choose the same type of plants, soil, pots and amount of water they give the plants. They also make sure each plant is put in their designated area for the same amount of time each day. One plant is placed outside; one in front of a window that only gets light for 1/2 the day, and one in a closet. The students collect data every day for two weeks. Their results show that the plant outside grew the most and the plant in the closet had the least amount of growth. What are the constant variables that Jane and David used in their experiment? A. type of plants B. the temperature C. the amount of time in the light D. A and C
B-1.5 Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using mathematics, graphs, models, and/or technology
Analyzing Data When analyzing data, be sure that any statements are simply statements about what the data show.
Sample Question Alexander was studying the effect of playing rock music on plant growth. One of the plants was exposed to rock music for 24 hours a day for a period of 6 weeks. Data on the growth of the plant was collected at the end of each week and plotted in a graph. Based on the data, which would be the MOST reasonable measurement at the end of an 8 week period? A. 2 decimeters B. 6 decimeters C. 8 decimeters D. 16 decimeters
Sample Question • A golf club company has four models of golf clubs. Average strokes saved per 18 holes is a positive indicator of quality (the more strokes saved, the better the golf clubs). The manufacturing time per set is a measure of how long it takes to manufacture one set of clubs. If the company wishes to produce a lot of golf clubs quickly, which set would be the best choice to meet their criteria? A. Alpha B. Legacy C. Platinum D.Primo
B-1.6 Evaluate the results of a controlled scientific investigation in terms of whether they refute or verify the hypothesis.
Conclusion In this portion of the lab, an explicit statement is made about whether your hypothesis was supported or refuted. Support from your data does not prove your hypothesis was correct, but does support your prediction. Data that does not support your data likewise does not disprove your prediction, but instead refutes it (fails to support it).
Sample Question When writing a conclusion, to what should the writer always refer? • procedure B. hypothesis C. your textbook D. the materials list
B-1.7 Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria (including cost, time, and materials).
Common requirements within the solution design stage: • Cost effectiveness or lowest cost • Time effectiveness or least amount of time required • Materials that meet these criteria: • Solves the problem • Reasonably priced • Availability • Durability • Not harmful to users or the environment • Manufacturing process matches characteristics of the material • ***Benefits should exceed risks, and there are tradeoffs to the process: the “best” may be too expensive
Sample Question What are the special considerations during the Solution Design during Technological Design Process? A. Cost B. Time C. Materials D. All of the above
B-1.8 Compare the processes of scientific investigation and technological design.
Check whether the following steps are part of the Technological Design Process or Scientific Investigations. (Note: you may check one or both boxes for each stage.) 5pts
B-1.9 Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.
Safety Procedures • Revisit Safety Contract and scenarios
Sample Question A Student is wearing a baggy sweater in the lab and it catches fire as the student reaches over the bunsen burner. What should you do as the lab partner? What should have been done to prevent this from happening?