This week’s topic…phrases! • Prepositional phrases • Verbal phrases • Absolute phrases • Appositive phrases
What is a phrase? • A phrase is a group of related • words that lacks either a • subject or a predicate or both. • amazing triumphs of technology (lacks a predicate) • can be found (lacks a subject) • in ancient civilizations (lacks a subject and predicate) • Amazing triumphs of technology can be found in • ancient civilizations.
Prepositional phrases • Consist of a preposition and an object • Function as adjectives or adverbs • Used to show relationship • Can be added or deleted without affecting the • meaning or structure of the sentence Life on a raft was an opportunity for adventure. adj. adj. Huck Finn rode the raft down the riverby choice. adv. adv. With his companion, Jim, Huck met many types of people. adv. adj.
Verbals A verbal is a word that is derived from a verb, has the power of a verb, but acts as another part of speech. Like a verb, a verbal may take an object, a modifier (adj/adv), and sometimes a subject; however, unlike a verb, a verbal functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Also, a verbal cannot serve as a verb. • Three types of verbals: • Gerund • Infinitive • Participle
Gerunds A gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and is used as a noun. Examples: Getting up each morning is the first challenge. (subject) I start moving around seven o’clock. (direct object) I work at jump-starting my weary system. (object of prep) Like Woody Allen once said, “Eighty percent of life is showing up.” (predicate noun)
Infinitives An infinitive is a verb form that is usually introduced by the word to. An infinitive may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Examples: To succeed is not easy. (noun subject) Students are wise to work hard. (adverb) The quiet environment of the library encourages the desire to study. (adjective) “To float or not to float, that is the question.”
Participles A participle is a verbal ending in ing or ed. A participle functions as an adjective. Examples: The students listening to this lecture are definitely interested. The prospects of aced tests and improved assignments must be appealing.
Don’t let your participles dangle! A dangling participle (or modifier) does not sensibly modify anything in its sentence. Examples: Incorrect: Walking down the crowded street, the traffic light turned red. Correct: Walking down the crowded street, I noticed the traffic light turning red. Incorrect: Although intact, graffiti covered every inch of the walls and windows. Correct: Although the walls and windows were intact, graffiti covered every inch of them.
Absolute phrases • Consist of a noun or pronoun and a participle, plus any • modifiers. • Unlike a participial phrase, an absolute phrase always • contains a noun that serves as a subject. • Examples: • Absolute phrase: • Their own place established, many ethnic groups • are making way for new arrivals. • Participial phrase: • Learning English, many immigrants discover American culture. • Participial phrase • Absolute phrase: • Immigrants having learned English, their opportunities widen. • Absolute phrase
Appositive phrases • An appositive is usually a noun that renames another • noun; it also adds new information about the noun • it follows. • An appositive phrase also includes modifiers. • Appositives and appositive phrases sometimes begin with • that is, such as, for example, or in other words. • Examples: • Ms. McBride, my English teacher, is a bibliophile. • appositive phrase • Books, for example Ulysses and The Glass Bead Game, inspire her. • appositive phrase
Enough about phrases! HOMEWORK: You guessed it… Use each vocabulary word from List 6 in a sentence: 4 absolute phrases 4 appositive phrases 4 gerunds 4 participles 4 infinitives