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Stress. “ ….stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand, whether it is caused by, or results in pleasant or unpleasant conditions.” Hans Selye, MD. Stress.

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stress
Stress

“….stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand, whether it is caused by, or results in pleasant or unpleasant conditions.”

Hans Selye, MD

stress3
Stress

“…a sociopsychophysiological phenomenon. It is a composite of intellectual, behavioral, metabolic, immune, and other physiological responses to a stressor (or stressors) of endogenous or exogenous origins. The stressors may involve thoughts and feelings or may be a perceived threat or some other condition such as cold. The response generally serves a protective, adaptive function.

Lindsay, Carrieri-Kohlman, Page

stress4
Stress

“…a reaction in your mind and body to an event in the outside world that alarms or arouses you.”

EMS Stress: An Emergency Responder’s Handbook for Living Well

sources of stress
Sources of Stress

The Good

Get married

Have children

Buy a new home

Go on vacation

New Job

Promotion

The Bad

Break a leg

Spouse loses job

Kidlet in trouble

Lose wallet

In-laws coming

The Ugly

Nasty car accident

Bankruptcy

Divorce

Loved one dying

types of stressors
Types of Stressors

Career Pressures

Injury

Emotional

Environmental

Illness

Physical

mind body integration
Mind Body Integration

Mind

Body

Body

Mind

Mind

Mind

Chocolate

Body

Body

Mind

Body

Mind

why stress management
Why Stress Management?

Stress Related Disorders & Chemical Dependency

  • Cost U.S. Employers Billions $$$$$
    • lost productivity
    • increased health care expenses
    • increased absenteeism
    • increased accidents
slide10

98.6

pH 7.4

Oxygen 99%

98.6

pH 7.4

Oxygen 99%

autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic
    • Increased HR, BP, RR
    • Muscles tense
    • Brain becomes more alert
    • Liver increases blood glucose level
    • Digestion inhibited
    • Pupils dilate
  • Parasympathetic
    • Normalizes HR, BP, RR
    • Muscles relax
    • Energy storage
    • Promotes growth
    • Mediates calm
    • Pupils constrict
cumulative stress
CUMULATIVE STRESS

“Any idiot can face a crisis…….

Its the day to day living that wears you out.”

Anton Cherkhov

how can the stress response make us sick
How Can the Stress Response Make Us Sick?
  • Chronically elevated BP
    • atherosclerosis
    • myocardial ischemia
  • Constantly using stored energy
    • tire more easily
  • Blocked insulin secretion
    • higher risk of diabetes
why stress management16
Why Stress Management?

Researchers indicate 2/3 of medical visits are for stress related illnesses

  • Stress response contributes to:
    • coronary artery disease
    • cancer
    • respiratory disorders
    • unintentional injuries
    • cirrhosis
    • suicide
physiologic signs of stress
Physiologic Signs of Stress
  • Immediate Changes
    • Increased cardiac output
    • Increased circulation
    • Increased BP, RR
    • Increased sweating
    • Piloerection
    • Pupil dilatation
    • Decreased salivation
  • Decreased gastric motility
  • Hyperalertness
  • Increased blood sugar
  • Use of blood glucose
  • Decreased stored energy
  • Increased fatty acids
  • Increased metabolism
physiologic sign of stress
Physiologic Sign of Stress
  • Long Term Effects
    • Increased breakdown of protein
    • Increased blood glucose
    • Increased vascular constriction
    • Decreased inflammatory response
  • Decreased immune response
  • Increased fluid volume
  • Increased sodium & fluid retention in kidneys
emotional signs of stress
Emotional Signs of Stress
  • Hopelessness
  • Helplessness
  • Feeling lost
  • Wishing to hide
  • Anxiety
  • Panic
  • Inappropriate Emotions
  • Denial
  • Fear
  • Depression
  • Grief
  • Anger
  • Worry
  • Uncertainty
cognitive signs symptoms
Cognitive Signs & Symptoms
  • Difficulty Making Decisions
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty Naming Familiar Items
  • Poor Concentration
  • Blaming Others
  • Memory Problems
  • Replaying Events Over & Over
behavioral signs of stress
Behavioral Signs of Stress
  • Withdrawal
  • Suspiciousness
  • Excessive Humor or Silence
  • Increased Smoking, Alcohol or Food
  • Change in Activity Level
  • Angry Outbursts
  • Crying Spells
negative self talk
Negative Self-Talk
  • The Worrier Voice - “What if…..?”
    • Make a plan then get it out of your head.
  • The Critic Voice - “How stupid…..”
    • Recognize what is really true.
  • The Victim Voice - “I’ll never be able to…..”
    • There is always something to do to work toward a goal.
  • The Perfectionist - “I should……”
    • Assess your unrealistic expectations of yourself.
slide23
Feeling “on edge”

Vague sense of future doom

Fear losing control

Racing thoughts

Detached from self

Decreased ability to learn

physical symptoms of anxiety
Physical Symptoms of Anxiety
  • Increased Muscle Tension
  • Dizziness
  • Rapid Heartbeat
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Queasy Stomach
  • Dry Mouth
  • Increased Perspiration
  • Problems with Sleep
coping skills to manage anxiety
Coping Skills to Manage Anxiety
  • Relaxation Techniques
  • Exercise
  • Examine Self Talk
  • Develop Action Plan
  • Avoid Stimulants
    • caffeine, nicotine, sugar
  • Counseling
  • Drug Therapy
anger physical symptoms
AngerPhysical Symptoms
  • Increased HR, BP
  • Increased Muscle Tension & Sweating
  • Restlessness
  • Emotional Symptoms
  • Shattered Beliefs in a Just World
  • Wronged
  • Ready to Fight
  • Defensive
anger management
Anger Management
  • Anger Intensifying
    • Yelling
    • Sulking
    • Pouting
    • Hitting
    • Other Violence
    • Competitive Games
    • Accusations
    • Arguing
  • Cooling Off Habits
    • Abdominal Breathing
    • Count to Ten
    • Non-Competitive Exercise
    • Distraction
    • Humor
    • Empathy for Other Person
workaholic behaviors
Workaholic Behaviors

A person whose desire to work long and hard is intrinsic, and whose work habits always exceed the job description and expectation of others.

personality traits of a workacholic
Personality Traits of a Workacholic
  • Detail oriented
  • Perfectionistic
  • High personal standards
  • Action oriented
  • Easily bored
  • Highly dedicated
  • Task oriented
workaholic behaviors31
Workaholic Behaviors
  • Contented
    • Family accepts work habits
    • Autonomy & variety in workplace
    • Good match between personality & job skills
    • Good health
  • Impaired
    • No pleasure in leisure
    • Distressed when not working
    • Isolated lifestyle
    • Family in distress
suggested behaviors
Suggested Behaviors
  • Don’t ruminate over problems
  • Respond to signs of fatigue
  • Don’t self medicate
    • ie. alcohol/drug abuse
  • Take scheduled time off
  • Stabilize domestic situations
  • Develop/maintain friendships
  • Engage in regular exercise
  • Foster sense of humor
depression
Depression
  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe
    • Always requires professional help.
garbage in garbage out
Garbage In = Garbage Out

Heart DiseaseHypertension

Arthritis Headache

StrokeIrritable Bowel

CancerDiabetes

Cumulative

Stress

Ugly Health

Habits

Told you so...

healthy habits
Healthy Habits
  • Nutrition
  • Attention to Symptoms
  • Exercise
  • Sleep
  • Recreation
  • Stretching
  • Social Support
  • Humor

Balance is the Key

slide36
Physiology of Circadian Rhythms

Stages of Sleep

REM Sleep

Shift Work

increase quality of sleep
Increase Quality of Sleep
  • Do
    • Exercise (early in day)
    • Avoid Caffeine
    • Avoid Alcohol
    • Don’t Self Medicate for Sleep

(some sedatives interfere with deep sleep)

    • Relaxation Techniques Before Sleep
    • Warm Bath
    • Avoid Rich Foods Before Sleep
slide38
“A person without a sense of humor is like a wagon without springs --- jolted by every pebble in the road.”

-Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman

slide39
Causes Deep Abdominal Breathing
  • Increases Circulation
  • Releases Endorphins & Enkyins
  • Relieves Tension
  • Puts Life into Perspective
slide40
“Laughter and tears are both responses to frustration and exhaustion . . .I myself prefer to laugh, since there is less cleaning up to do afterward.”

-Kurt Vonnegut

slide41

ANTI- STRESS THERAPY

BANG

HEAD

HERE

REPEAT UNTIL STRESS IS GONE OR

YOU ARE UNCONSCIOUS

relaxation techniques
Relaxation Techniques
  • Abdominal Breathing
  • Active Progressive Muscle Relaxation
  • Visualization
  • Self-Hypnosis
  • Meditation
  • Music
  • Stretching
  • Exercise