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Points of Interest

Points of Interest

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Points of Interest

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  1. Points of Interest Acromion Process Lateral Epicondyle Radial Process of Ulna Styloid Process of Ulna CMC, MCP, PIP, DIP Metacarpals Humerus Femur www.contmediausa.com

  2. Points of Interest Ulna Greater Trochanter Anterior Superior Iliac Spine External Auditory Meatus Top of Skull Inferior Angle of Scapula External Occipital Protuberance Cervical Vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae Sacral Vertebrae www.ama-assn.org

  3. Points of Interest • These points of interest will be explored in greater detail in the individual tests • By the end of the experiments, students will be able to locate and name these points of interest

  4. Tools for Experiments • Goniometer • Tape Measurer • Chair or Stool • Towel • Table or Bench • Spread Sheet for Data

  5. Set 1 of Test (Standing) 1. Torsal Rotation 2. Scapular Motion 3. Neck Movement 4. Spinal Extension

  6. Torsal Rotation Points of Interest: Acromion Process Top of Skull www.med.umich.edu www.swimbikerunstlouis.com/

  7. Torsal Rotation • Subject in standing neutral position • Goniometer is placed on center of skull • Acromion process is located • Line up with the right shoulder • Both arms of goniometer are lined up with acromion process • Subject rotates torso to the right • One arm of goniometer remains stationary while the other finds the final location of acromion process after rotation

  8. Scapular Motion above Head Points of Interest: Inferior angle of Scapula Thoracic Vertebra www.courses.vcu.edu

  9. Scapular Motion above Head • Subject is standing in neutral position • Hands by side • Inferior Angle of Scapula located • Thoracic Vertebrae horizontal to Inferior Angle is located • Use a tape measurer • Head of tape measurer placed at Inferior angle • Measure to the Thoracic Vertebrae (centimeters)

  10. Scapular Motion above Head • Subject will rotate their arm above head • Start from side and rotate out and upward • Locate the same two points of interest • Measure horizontally from the Thoracic to the Inferior Angle

  11. Scapular Motion behind Back • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating arm above their head, it will rotate behind their back • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  12. Scapular Adduction • Subject is standing in neutral position • Arm and elbow making a 90 degree angle with the ground • The elbow should be bent with the palm balled into a fist making a 90 degree angle at the elbow • Inferior Angle of Scapula located • Thoracic Vertebrae horizontal to Inferior Angle is located • Use a tape measurer • Head of tape measurer placed at Inferior angle • Measure to the Thoracic Vertebrae (centimeters)

  13. Scapular Adduction • Subject will rotate their arm to full adduction in front of their chest • Locate the same two points of interest • Measure horizontally from the Thoracic to the Inferior Angle

  14. Scapular Abduction • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating arm in front of chest, they will rotate their arm in the hind position • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  15. Neck Motion Points of Interest: External Occipital Protuberance C7 Vertebrae library.thinkquest.org www.med.umich.edu

  16. Neck Motion • Subject should stand in neutral position • Hands by side • Locate the Occipital Protuberance and Cervical Vertebrae (C7) • Use Goniometer • Fully extend the goniometer and place the center of the goniometer at the C7 • The stationary arm is parallel to the ground • The moving arm is placed at Protuberance

  17. Neck Motion • Subject will flex their neck in toward their right shoulder • The moving arm will move to find the final position of the Occipital Protuberance

  18. Spinal Extension Points of Interest: Cervical Vertebrae 7 Sacral Vertebrae 1 www.microscopy-uk.org.uk

  19. Spinal Extension • Subject is in a standing neutral position • Arms by side • Locate the C7 and S1 vertebrae on the spine • Use a tape measurer • Measure from the C7 to the S1 in centimeters • The subject will bend forward at the waist • Similar to doing a spinal test at the doctor • Try to touch the fingers to toes

  20. Spinal Extension • Take final measurements from the new location of the C7 and S1 vertebrae

  21. Set 2 of Test (Sitting) 1. Neck Rotation 2. Shoulder Joint Rotation 3. Wrist Rotation 4. Hip Joint Rotation 5. Metacarpal Extension

  22. Neck Rotation Points of Interest: Top of Skull Acromion Process Center of Nose Base of Nose External Auditory Meatus bruticus.cottages.polycount.com

  23. Right Neck Rotation • Subject will sit in a chair • Neutral position • Points of interest are located at the top of the skull, center of the nose, and the Acromion Process • Use a Goniometer • The center of the goniometer is placed on the top of the skull • The moving arm is facing in the direction of the center of the nose • The stationary arm is in the direction of the Acromion Process

  24. Right Neck Rotation • Subject will rotate their neck towards the right to maximal position • Upper torso is to remain neutral • The stationary arm does not move • The moving arm finds the final position of the nose

  25. Upward Neck Rotation • Subject will sit in a chair • Neutral position • External Auditory Meatus is located • Base of the Nose is Located • Use a Goniometer • The center of the goniometer is placed at the External Auditory Meatus • The moving arm is facing in the direction of the Base of the Nose • The stationary arm is in a perpendicular position

  26. Upward Neck Rotation • Subject will rotate their neck upwards to its maximal position • Upper torso is to remain neutral • The stationary arm does not move • The moving arm finds the final position of the Base of the Nose

  27. Downward Neck Rotation • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating their neck upward, they will rotate their neck in the downward position • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  28. Shoulder Rotation Points of Interest: Acromion Process Lateral Epicondyle Note: the figure is not representative of the position of the subject, but it does show the points of interest www.endurosport.com/

  29. Shoulder Rotation Adduction • Subject is sitting in neutral position • Right arm and elbow making a 90 degree angle with the ground • The elbow should be bent with the palm balled into a fist making a 90 degree angle at the elbow • Acromion Process is located • Lateral Epicondyle is located

  30. Shoulder Rotation Adduction • Use Goniometer • Fully extended with the center on the Acromion Process • Stationary arm is extended in the direction of the neck • The moving arm is extended in the direction of the Lateral Epicondyle • Subject will rotate their arm to full adduction in front of their chest • Locate the same two points of interest • The moving arm will locate the final position of the Lateral Epicondyle

  31. Shoulder Rotation Abduction • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating arm in front of chest, they will rotate their arm in the hind position • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  32. Wrist Rotation Points of Interest: Lateral Epicondyle Styloid Process of the Ulna MCP z.about.com/d/ergonomics www.vistalab.com/images

  33. Upward Wrist Rotation • Subject is sitting in neutral position with arm rested on a table • Shoulder and elbow make about a 45 degree angle with table • The elbow should be bent 90 degrees with the wrist on the edge of the table • The metacarpals loosely flexed over the edge of the table • Styloid Process of the Ulna is located • Lateral Epicondyle is located • The MCP of the 5th metacarpal is located

  34. Upward Wrist Rotation • Use a Goniometer • Fully extended to about 180 degrees • Center is placed on the Styloid Process • Stationary Arm is in the direction of the Epicondyle • Moving arm is in the direction of the MCP of the 5th metacarpal • Subject will rotate their wrist as far upward as possible • Locate the same two points of interest • The moving arm will locate the final position of the MCP

  35. Downward Wrist Rotation • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating wrist upward, they rotate downward • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  36. Right Wrist Rotation • Subject is sitting in neutral position with arm rested on a table • Shoulder and elbow make about a 45 degree angle with table • The elbow should be bent 90 degrees with the wrist on the edge of the table • The metacarpals flexed over the edge of the table • Styloid Process of the Ulna is located • Lateral Epicondyle is located • The MCP of the 3rd metacarpal is located

  37. Right Wrist Rotation • Use a Goniometer • Fully extended to about 180 degrees • Center is placed on top of the Styloid Process • Stationary Arm is in the direction of the Epicondyle • Moving arm is in the direction of the MCP of the 3rd metacarpal • Subject will rotate their wrist as far right as possible • Locate the same two points of interest • The moving arm will locate the final position of the MCP

  38. Left Wrist Rotation • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating wrist right, they rotate left • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  39. Hip Joint Rotation Points of Interest: Patella Mid-Tarsus Area www.infovisual.info

  40. Inward Hip Rotation • Subject sitting on table/bench • Locate the Patella • Locate the muscled area between the Tarsus and Metatarsus • Use Goniometer • Goniometer should be at 0 degrees with both arms perpendicular to the ground • Goniometer should be placed on the patella with the arms facing the mid-tarsus area

  41. Inward Hip Rotation • Subject will rotate their foot outward • Foot should be flexed and parallel to the ground • Knee will rotate inward • Upper torso should remain neutral • Locate the same points of interest • Stationary arm will remain perpendicular to the ground • The moving arm will find the final location of the mid-tarsus area

  42. Outward Hip Rotation • Perform the same experiment in opposite direction • Same points of interest • Instead of subject rotating foot outward, they rotate the foot inward • Measurements will be taken the same as before

  43. Metacarpal Extension Points of Interest: MCP of 1st Metacarpal MCP of 2nd Metacarpal images.wikia.com/ www.pycomall.com/images

  44. Metacarpal Extension • Subject is sitting with hand on a table • CMC, MCP, PIP, and DIP are neutral on the surface of the table • Dorsal aspect of the hand between the 1st and 2nd MCP joints is located • Use Goniometer • Center is placed on the dorsal aspectect between the 1st and 2nd MCP joints • Stationary arm is on the 2nd metacarpal • Moving Arm is on the 1st metacarpal

  45. Metacarpal Extension • Subject will fully extend the 1st metacarpal • The moving arm will locate the new location of the 1st metacarpal MCP joint

  46. Set 3 of Test (Supine) 1. Hip Rotation 2. Shoulder Joint Rotation 3. Elbow Flexion

  47. Hip Rotation Points of Interest: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine Patella academic.wsc.edu www.direct-healthcare.com

  48. Hip Abduction • Subject In Supine Position • Laying on back in neutral position • Anterior Superior Iliac Spine located on both hips • The left patella is located • Use Goniometer • The center is placed on the left ASIS • Stationary arm is facing the right ASIS • Moving arm is facing the patella

  49. Hip Abduction • Subject will abduct leg outward to maximal position • Rest of the body should remain neutral • The center is placed on the left ASIS • Stationary arm is facing the right ASIS • Moving arm locates the final position of the left patella

  50. Hip Adduction • Subject in supine position • Laying on back in neutral position • Right Leg is abducted to maximal extension • Anterior Superior Iliac Spine located on both hips • The left patella is located • Use Goniometer • The center is placed on the left ASIS • Stationary arm is facing the right ASIS • Moving arm is facing the left patella