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Kingdom Animmalia

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  1. Kingdom Animmalia By Kendall Reyes Diana Ramirez ItceliaSegoviano

  2. Phylum: Porifera (sponges) • They feed through pores on their outer walls. • They’re driven by flagella. • Different cells perform different functions. • They are both asexual and sexual. • Their skeleton is made up of collegen and spicules. • Porifera are known as Sponges. • Their bodies are hollow and made of a jelly-like substance. • It can filter up to 100 liters of water everyday.

  3. Class Calcarea • Their skeleton consists of • individual spicules of calcium. • They are predominantly found in shallow waters.

  4. Class Hexactinellida • They are glass sponges. • They are members whose spicules of silica fuse in a continuous and often very beautiful latticework.

  5. Class Demospongiae • This is the largest • class. • Their skeletons • are made of spicules consisting of the protein spongin , the mineral silica , or both. • Most are marine, but several • live in freshwater. • Some are brightly colored, and there’s a great diversity in body shape.

  6. Class Sclerospongiae • This is the smallest class, whose skeletons have • three kinds of material: • calcium carbonate, silica, • and spongin. • These sponges have a skeleton constructed of carbonate. • They have a thin, layer covering a massive skeleton of silica and spongin that support cells.

  7. Phylum: Cnidaria • They’re armed with stingy cells called nematocysts. • 4 major groups: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa. • At some point in their lives they develop a medusa and a polyp ( vase-shaped, sedentary stage of Cnidarian life cycle) stage. • They have a gastrovascular cavity that helps them eat prey. It consists of tentacles around it.

  8. Ctenophora (ctenophores) • Ctenophores mean "comb-bearers" because they have eight "comb rows" of fused cilia arranged. • Some species move with a flapping motion of their lobes or undulations of the body. • Many have two long tentacles, but some lack them. • They’re known as comb jellies. • In a few species, special cilia in the mouth are used for biting gelatinous prey.

  9. Class Tentaculata • The body is spherical or slightly oval. • It has two long tentacles. On each tentacle there is a lateral row of fine filaments. • It inhabits shallow waters.

  10. Class Nuda • A type of comb jellyfish. • Another name for Nuda is the "mother of comb jellyfish". • This class has no tentacles. • They swim with plankton and can be found in all parts of the ocean. • The longest the species can be is around 12 inches long with sac like bodies and large mouths.

  11. Phylum: Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) • The body of these organisms develop from three germ layers: Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. • They have bilaterally symmetrical bodies, with dorsal and ventral surfaces, right and left sides, and anterior and posterior ends. • There’s more than 20,000 species that divide in four classes. • Parasitic organisms may have evolved from free-living organisms.

  12. Class Turbellaria • The majority of the 4,500 species in this class live in the ocean. • The most familiar turbellariais the freshwater planarian Dugesia. • They have a soft epidermis that’s ciliated on the ventral surface. • Most are marine, but some are found in fresh water or on land. • They eat small animals or dead and decaying material. Food that’s not digested exits through the mouth. • Excretory: has flame cells whose cilia removes excess water and nitrogenous bases. • Nervous: there’s eye spots that are sensitive to light and pointed lobes that are sensitive to touch. • Reproduction: asexual and sexual.

  13. Classes Trematoda and Monogenea • Trematoda and Monogenea • They both consist of parasitic flukes: leaf-shaped flatworms that parasitize mammals. • Trematoda • They’re parasitic and leaf-shaped. • They have a thick cuticle to prevent digestion from the host. • Nervous/Muscular systems are mostly absent. • They produce 1,000’s of eggs because many die. Monogenea Trematoda

  14. Class Cestoda • About 5,000 species of tapeworms exist in this class. • Tapeworms are parasitic. • They live in mammals and elk. • Excretory, muscular and nervous systems may be absent. • Nutrients enter by diffusion.

  15. Phylum: Rotifera (Rotifers) • There are approximately 17,500 species in this phylum. • Most live in fresh water, but some live in damp soil and salt water. • They’re transparent, multicellular, and free-living. • Males are smaller than females (both may range between 100 to 500µm.) • They survive long periods without water; however, when wet conditions reappear, they absorb it. • Cilia surrounds their mouth and pulls in food. • They reproduce in the process of parthenogenesis: unfertilized eggs develop into adults.

  16. Class Seisonidea • Reproduce by sexual reproduction only. • They are a marine class. • They live in the gills of crustaceans.

  17. Class Bdelloida • Reproduce by parthogenesis. • They can survive extreme temperatures and desiccation for years. • They’re named “Wheeled Animacules” for being the first rotifers to be described.

  18. Class Monogononta • Reproduce by parthogenesis. • There’s both fresh water and marine species in this class. • This class contains the largest number of species counting with over 70% of them occupying the phylum rotifera.

  19. Phylum: Mollusca (Mollusks) • There are more than 112,000 species. • Mollusks comes from the Latin molluscus, meaning “soft.” • Some are fast-moving predators with complex nervous systems. • They are coelomates. • Most mollusks go through a larval stage called a trochopore. • Their body is divided in two main regions: the head-foot and the visceral mass.

  20. Class Polyplacophora • They’re commonly known as chitons. • They are marine and the majority inhabit rocky seashore environments. • They will roll up into a ball to protect their under surface.This condition allows them to roll safely in the waves. • Most are herbivores, but some are carnivores. • They’re nocturnal in behavior.

  21. The largest and most diverse class of mollusks with over 40,000 species. • During larval development, they undergo torsion: twisting that brings the mantle cavity, gills, and anus to the front. • They move smoothly thanks to wavelike muscular contractions of the foot. • They’re commonly called gastropods. • They have an open circulatory system. Class Gastropoda

  22. Class Bivalvia • Species whose shells are divided into halves (valves) connected by a hinge. • This species can close its shell with their muscles that are attached to the inside of each valve. • The valves consist of three layers. • Their nervous systems consist of three pairs of ganglia: one pair near the mouth, another in the digestive system and one in the foot.

  23. Class Cephalopoda • They’re marine and are commonly called cephalopods: head-foot. • Specialized for free-swimming, and predatory existence. • Tentacles stretch out from their heads. • Their jaws resemble a parrots beak. • Their nervous system is the most advanced of all mollusks. • The cells in tentacles sense chemicals in the water. • They have a closed circulatory system. • Many release a dark fluid to distract enemies.

  24. They were thought to be extinct. • They’re limpet-shaped mollusks that are segmented like worms. In each segment, the internal vital organs are duplicated. • They live only in the deeper ocean areas where they’re away from predators. Class Monoplacophora

  25. Class Aplacophora • There’s about 100 known species. • Most live in deep water. • Some bury themselves in sand or mud in the oceans to eat annelids and other small invertebrates. • They have no shell. • Posses a trace of mantle cavity. • Their feet are absent. • They don’t have specialized sense organs. • Males release their sperm into the water and females release their eggs.

  26. Class Scaphapoda • Includes 200 species. • The shell is long, cylindrical and tooth- or tusk-shaped, and open at both ends. • The tentacles hang from the head and are used for gathering the microscopic organisms on which tusk shells feed. • They’re found in both shallow and deep water.

  27. Phylum: Annelida (Segmented Worms) • Annelid is a term that comes from Latin meaning “little rings.” • This phylum consists of about 15,000 species of worms. • Most have external bristles called setae and some have fleshy protrusions called parapodia. • If one segment breaks, the others will still function properly. • They have true coeloms and develop from a trochopore.

  28. Class Oligochaeta • They live in soil or in fresh water. • Oligochaeta means ”few bristles.” • The most common species is the earthworm.

  29. Class Polychaeta • About 60% of the species in this phylum are part of this class. • Polychaetameans “many bristles.” • They have antennae and have specialized mouthparts. • Most are marine. • Some are swimmers that use their jaws to eat small animals. While others eat sediment or search the bottom of the ocean for food.

  30. Class Hirudinea • Consists of about 500 species of leeches. • The smallest class of annelids. • Most leeches live in calm fresh water.

  31. Nematoda (Roundworms) • There’s more than 28,000 species with 16,000 of them being parasitic. • They are bilaterally symmetrical and are surrounded by a noncellular layer: cuticle. • They reproduction sexually and are found in every environment. • The phylum is divided into 2 classes (Adenophorea and Secernentea.)

  32. Class Secernentea • Their excretory system is tubular. • The males have a single testis. • The esophagus varies. • Mostly are terrestrial, they’re rarely freshwater or marine.

  33. Class Adenophorea • They have a non-tubular excretory system. • Males generally has two testes. • They’re marine, freshwater, and terrestrial.

  34. Arthropoda

  35. Echinodermata

  36. Chordata

  37. References :D • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

  38. References :D • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •