Kingdom Animmalia By Kendall Reyes Diana Ramirez ItceliaSegoviano
Phylum: Porifera (sponges) • They feed through pores on their outer walls. • They’re driven by flagella. • Different cells perform different functions. • They are both asexual and sexual. • Their skeleton is made up of collegen and spicules. • Porifera are known as Sponges. • Their bodies are hollow and made of a jelly-like substance. • It can filter up to 100 liters of water everyday.
Class Calcarea • Their skeleton consists of • individual spicules of calcium. • They are predominantly found in shallow waters.
Class Hexactinellida • They are glass sponges. • They are members whose spicules of silica fuse in a continuous and often very beautiful latticework.
Class Demospongiae • This is the largest • class. • Their skeletons • are made of spicules consisting of the protein spongin , the mineral silica , or both. • Most are marine, but several • live in freshwater. • Some are brightly colored, and there’s a great diversity in body shape.
Class Sclerospongiae • This is the smallest class, whose skeletons have • three kinds of material: • calcium carbonate, silica, • and spongin. • These sponges have a skeleton constructed of carbonate. • They have a thin, layer covering a massive skeleton of silica and spongin that support cells.
Phylum: Cnidaria • They’re armed with stingy cells called nematocysts. • 4 major groups: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa. • At some point in their lives they develop a medusa and a polyp ( vase-shaped, sedentary stage of Cnidarian life cycle) stage. • They have a gastrovascular cavity that helps them eat prey. It consists of tentacles around it.
Ctenophora (ctenophores) • Ctenophores mean "comb-bearers" because they have eight "comb rows" of fused cilia arranged. • Some species move with a flapping motion of their lobes or undulations of the body. • Many have two long tentacles, but some lack them. • They’re known as comb jellies. • In a few species, special cilia in the mouth are used for biting gelatinous prey.
Class Tentaculata • The body is spherical or slightly oval. • It has two long tentacles. On each tentacle there is a lateral row of fine filaments. • It inhabits shallow waters.
Class Nuda • A type of comb jellyfish. • Another name for Nuda is the "mother of comb jellyfish". • This class has no tentacles. • They swim with plankton and can be found in all parts of the ocean. • The longest the species can be is around 12 inches long with sac like bodies and large mouths.
Phylum: Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) • The body of these organisms develop from three germ layers: Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. • They have bilaterally symmetrical bodies, with dorsal and ventral surfaces, right and left sides, and anterior and posterior ends. • There’s more than 20,000 species that divide in four classes. • Parasitic organisms may have evolved from free-living organisms.
Class Turbellaria • The majority of the 4,500 species in this class live in the ocean. • The most familiar turbellariais the freshwater planarian Dugesia. • They have a soft epidermis that’s ciliated on the ventral surface. • Most are marine, but some are found in fresh water or on land. • They eat small animals or dead and decaying material. Food that’s not digested exits through the mouth. • Excretory: has flame cells whose cilia removes excess water and nitrogenous bases. • Nervous: there’s eye spots that are sensitive to light and pointed lobes that are sensitive to touch. • Reproduction: asexual and sexual.
Classes Trematoda and Monogenea • Trematoda and Monogenea • They both consist of parasitic flukes: leaf-shaped flatworms that parasitize mammals. • Trematoda • They’re parasitic and leaf-shaped. • They have a thick cuticle to prevent digestion from the host. • Nervous/Muscular systems are mostly absent. • They produce 1,000’s of eggs because many die. Monogenea Trematoda
Class Cestoda • About 5,000 species of tapeworms exist in this class. • Tapeworms are parasitic. • They live in mammals and elk. • Excretory, muscular and nervous systems may be absent. • Nutrients enter by diffusion.
Phylum: Rotifera (Rotifers) • There are approximately 17,500 species in this phylum. • Most live in fresh water, but some live in damp soil and salt water. • They’re transparent, multicellular, and free-living. • Males are smaller than females (both may range between 100 to 500µm.) • They survive long periods without water; however, when wet conditions reappear, they absorb it. • Cilia surrounds their mouth and pulls in food. • They reproduce in the process of parthenogenesis: unfertilized eggs develop into adults.
Class Seisonidea • Reproduce by sexual reproduction only. • They are a marine class. • They live in the gills of crustaceans.
Class Bdelloida • Reproduce by parthogenesis. • They can survive extreme temperatures and desiccation for years. • They’re named “Wheeled Animacules” for being the first rotifers to be described.
Class Monogononta • Reproduce by parthogenesis. • There’s both fresh water and marine species in this class. • This class contains the largest number of species counting with over 70% of them occupying the phylum rotifera.
Phylum: Mollusca (Mollusks) • There are more than 112,000 species. • Mollusks comes from the Latin molluscus, meaning “soft.” • Some are fast-moving predators with complex nervous systems. • They are coelomates. • Most mollusks go through a larval stage called a trochopore. • Their body is divided in two main regions: the head-foot and the visceral mass.
Class Polyplacophora • They’re commonly known as chitons. • They are marine and the majority inhabit rocky seashore environments. • They will roll up into a ball to protect their under surface.This condition allows them to roll safely in the waves. • Most are herbivores, but some are carnivores. • They’re nocturnal in behavior.
The largest and most diverse class of mollusks with over 40,000 species. • During larval development, they undergo torsion: twisting that brings the mantle cavity, gills, and anus to the front. • They move smoothly thanks to wavelike muscular contractions of the foot. • They’re commonly called gastropods. • They have an open circulatory system. Class Gastropoda
Class Bivalvia • Species whose shells are divided into halves (valves) connected by a hinge. • This species can close its shell with their muscles that are attached to the inside of each valve. • The valves consist of three layers. • Their nervous systems consist of three pairs of ganglia: one pair near the mouth, another in the digestive system and one in the foot.
Class Cephalopoda • They’re marine and are commonly called cephalopods: head-foot. • Specialized for free-swimming, and predatory existence. • Tentacles stretch out from their heads. • Their jaws resemble a parrots beak. • Their nervous system is the most advanced of all mollusks. • The cells in tentacles sense chemicals in the water. • They have a closed circulatory system. • Many release a dark fluid to distract enemies.
They were thought to be extinct. • They’re limpet-shaped mollusks that are segmented like worms. In each segment, the internal vital organs are duplicated. • They live only in the deeper ocean areas where they’re away from predators. Class Monoplacophora
Class Aplacophora • There’s about 100 known species. • Most live in deep water. • Some bury themselves in sand or mud in the oceans to eat annelids and other small invertebrates. • They have no shell. • Posses a trace of mantle cavity. • Their feet are absent. • They don’t have specialized sense organs. • Males release their sperm into the water and females release their eggs.
Class Scaphapoda • Includes 200 species. • The shell is long, cylindrical and tooth- or tusk-shaped, and open at both ends. • The tentacles hang from the head and are used for gathering the microscopic organisms on which tusk shells feed. • They’re found in both shallow and deep water.
Phylum: Annelida (Segmented Worms) • Annelid is a term that comes from Latin meaning “little rings.” • This phylum consists of about 15,000 species of worms. • Most have external bristles called setae and some have fleshy protrusions called parapodia. • If one segment breaks, the others will still function properly. • They have true coeloms and develop from a trochopore.
Class Oligochaeta • They live in soil or in fresh water. • Oligochaeta means ”few bristles.” • The most common species is the earthworm.
Class Polychaeta • About 60% of the species in this phylum are part of this class. • Polychaetameans “many bristles.” • They have antennae and have specialized mouthparts. • Most are marine. • Some are swimmers that use their jaws to eat small animals. While others eat sediment or search the bottom of the ocean for food.
Class Hirudinea • Consists of about 500 species of leeches. • The smallest class of annelids. • Most leeches live in calm fresh water.
Nematoda (Roundworms) • There’s more than 28,000 species with 16,000 of them being parasitic. • They are bilaterally symmetrical and are surrounded by a noncellular layer: cuticle. • They reproduction sexually and are found in every environment. • The phylum is divided into 2 classes (Adenophorea and Secernentea.)
Class Secernentea • Their excretory system is tubular. • The males have a single testis. • The esophagus varies. • Mostly are terrestrial, they’re rarely freshwater or marine.
Class Adenophorea • They have a non-tubular excretory system. • Males generally has two testes. • They’re marine, freshwater, and terrestrial.
References :D • http://www.wallpapersonweb.com/image-207460.html • http://free-animated-backgrounds.com/desktop/background-ppt.html • http://www.wallsave.com/wallpaper/1024x768/powerpoint-backgrounds-for-christmas-free-christian-25390.html • http://www.backgroundppt.com/jenkin-blog-swirl-backgrounds-powerpoint-template • http://animated-desktop-wallpaper.blogspot.com/2011/08/powerpoint-background-templates.html • http://www.powerpoint.org.cn/ppt/FoodPowerpoint/ppt_61485.html • http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/animals/mollusks.htm • http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/flatworm.htm • http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/deanderson/dennis_worms/class_turb.html • http://www.sfu.ca/~fankbone/v/lab05.html • http://www.kmle.co.kr/search.php?Search=monogenea&SpecialSearch=HTMLWebHtdig&Page=1 • http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__10_platy_nemat/taenia_scolex.html • http://sfrc.ufl.edu/planktonweb/taxonomy.htm • http://mrslait.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/6/5/1465667/phylum_platyhelminthes_web_notes.pdf • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860433.html • http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/ROTIFERA.htm • http://bio.fsu.edu/~bsc2011l/sp_05_doc/Mollusca_2-22-05.pdf • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastropoda • http://slowmuse.wordpress.com/2008/10/26/bivalvia-in-excelsis/ • http://tolweb.org/Cephalopoda • http://www.gulfspecimen.org/catalog/specimens/PhylumAnnelida.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligochaeta
References :D • http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Annelids/Nereis2.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leech • http://www.biology.iastate.edu/Courses/211L/Porif/%20Porifindx.htm • http://students.ncwc.edu/bio101/invertebrates/characteristics_of_cnidaria.htm • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/cnidaria.html • http://www.manandmollusc.net/advanced_introduction/moll101polyplacophora.html • http://www.manandmollusc.net/advanced_introduction/moll101monoplacophora.html • http://www.manandmollusc.net/advanced_introduction/moll101aplacophora.html • http://www.creationguide.com/scuba/gallery.htm • http://www.pnwscuba.com/critterwatchers/pnwmarinelife2009.htm • http://tolweb.org/Demospongiae/20439 • http://student.nu.ac.th/46410379/lesson%201.htm • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0859724.html • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/ctenophora.html • http://www.seawater.no/fauna/ctenophora/pileus.html • http://homepage.usask.ca/~tjf719/nematoda.html • http://plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/nemaplex/taxadata/Secernea.htm • http://plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/nemaplex/taxadata/ADENOREA.HTM