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The Post Classical World

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  1. The Post Classical World Medieval European Society and the Rise of Islam

  2. Timeline • 1456: Gutenberg Bible (Invention of movable type) • 1492 Columbus’ “Discovery” of the New World • ca 1500 Renaissance • 1517 Protestant Reformation • 1607: Founding of Virginia (Jamestown Colony) • 1620-30: Founding of Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Post Classical World

  3. At the locus of ancient civilizations… • “Western Christendom,” Feudalism and Manorialism develop in Western Europe • “Byzantine” Empire and “Eastern Orthodox” Christianity develops in eastern portion of former Roman Empire • New Religion is founded in the Middle East: Islam

  4. The Muslim World • Mohammed born: 570 CE • Islam spreads: 600s or 7th Century onward • “Civilization” shifts to the east • “Christendom” confronts a large and growing empire on its southern and eastern border.

  5. Tenets of Islam • Emerged from the Judeo-Christian tradition. Mohammed was a “prophet” as was Abraham, Jesus, and other ancient Hebrew religious leaders • A missionary religion (like Buddhism and Christianity • A monotheistic religion (like Judaism and Christianity)

  6. Tenets of Islam • Five Pillars: • Basic creed: Belief in one God: Allah • Ritual prayer five times a day • Alms giving • Fasting during month of Ramadan • Pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) in one’s lifetime

  7. Comparison of Islam and Christianity: Examples • Similarities: • Sacred text: Bible or Qur’an (Koran) • Conception of sin, heaven and hell • Monotheistic, missionary, patriarchal religion deriving from same tradition of ancient writings • Ritual practices to organize daily life • Christianity: sacraments of baptism, confession, communion, marriage, last rites • Islam: daily prayer, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca

  8. Comparison of Islam and Christianity: Examples • Differences: • Christianity: a hierarchical priesthood • Islam: a decentralized priesthood • Christianity: a rule of monogamous marriage • Islam: men may take additional wives • Islam permitted divorce; medieval Christianity did not

  9. Expansion of Islam

  10. Expansion of Islam

  11. Islamic World, 900

  12. Expansion of Islam, 1300

  13. Ottoman Empire, 1566

  14. Meanwhile…in Europe… • How does a society grow? • How does a population increase?

  15. Europe in 1099

  16. European Ancient and Medieval Population Estimates • About 1000, the medieval world had stabilized. For the next 300 years it grew. • 200 - 40 million • 600 - 20 million • 1000- 23 million • 1340 - 60 million • 1400 - 35 million • 1500 - 55 million • Detailed Population Estimates

  17. Castle

  18. Peasant House

  19. Peasant House

  20. For Individuals.....What Regulates Family Formation? • Age of Maturity • Permission of Parents, Kin, or Perhaps Lord or Master • Resources to Set Up a Household: land, housing, trade

  21. By 1300…. • Europe was ‘crowded’ –not by today’s standards, but according to the economic and technological standard of the time. • So people either had to • (1) decide that their children would get poorer, or • (2) figure out how to control population growth.

  22. Results…. • Agnatic lineages become common. • Sons had to await the death of their fathers to inherit. • Inheritances were organized to concentrate economic resources, not disperse property, so land was ‘entailed’ and ‘primogeniture’ was practiced.

  23. And….. • Entail prevents the break up of land parcels, • Primogeniture requires that the eldest son inherit all family resources. • Other children were • (1) sent into the church; • (2) sent to the Crusades; • (3) given small property settlements which left them downwardly mobile.

  24. And…. • Men wait to marry; • Women marry young because they might ‘miss’ a mate.

  25. Cultural Results... • Large age differences between husbands and wives, and thus perceptions of distant fathers and more loving mothers • A system adjusted to the economic realities - slow expansion with potential for adjustment and additional growth • …… or demographic disaster…..

  26. Spread of the Black Death - 1347

  27. European Ancient and Medieval Population Estimates • About 1000, the medieval world had stabilized. For the next 300 years it grew. • 200 - 40 million • 600 - 20 million • 1000- 23 million • 1340 - 60 million • 1400 - 35 million • 1500 - 55 million • Detailed Population Estimates