six sigma quality engineering l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Six Sigma Quality Engineering PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Six Sigma Quality Engineering

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 119

Six Sigma Quality Engineering - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 243 Views
  • Uploaded on

Six Sigma Quality Engineering. Week 10 Lean Enterprise Continuous Improvements (Kaizen). What is a Kaizen Blitz?.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Six Sigma Quality Engineering


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
six sigma quality engineering

Six Sigma Quality Engineering

Week 10

Lean Enterprise

Continuous Improvements (Kaizen)

what is a kaizen blitz
What is a Kaizen Blitz?

A Kaizen Blitz is a cross functional multi-level team of 5 to 10 members working intensely for 10 to 14 hours a day, to rapidly develop, test and refine solutions to problems and leave a new solution in place in just a few days. They don’t plan, they don’t propose, they do.

A Kaizen Blitz, used in conjunction with the Toyota Production System (TPS) and current Lean Manufacturing principles, can serve as a catalyst for the initial implementation of a plant wide Lean Manufacturing initiative.

This focus on immediate change is what sets Kaizen activity apart from other improvement tools.

cycle of an event
Cycle of an Event

Schedule the Event

Recognize the Needfor Change

Select System / Process to Optimize

3

2

4

Our Way of Life

1

5

Develop the Objectives

Formalize the Change

12

Process Owner: Review& Explains Objectives

6

11

Process Owner:

Accepts Change

7

  • Learning the Tools
  • 5S, Process Flow
  • TAKT / Cycle Time

10

8

9

Make the Change

  • Capture the Details
  • Data Gathering
  • Detail Analysis

Set Goals,

Make a Plan

slide4

Where do we start first?

Define the problem

Anywhere Work is being done…

Waste is being generated

THE CUSTOMER DOES NOT PAY FOR WASTE

Module 0013

how material spends time in the factory
How Material SpendsTime In The Factory

Large

opportunity

Better

90's

80's

Value

Added

4%

Value

Non-

Non-

Added

Value

Value

16%

Added

Added

84%

96%

We can make

this better

but it is not

our focus

how paper spends time in an office process
How Paper Spends TimeIn An Office Process

We will also focus

on front end

throughput

opportunities

VA 18%

NVA 82%

ref: Otis - NAD, 1991

Module 0013

total cost
Total Cost

This is not a

labor reduction

program

6 %

Direct Labor As a Percent of Total Cost.

Module 0013

the new equation
The New Equation

Supplier Cost Increases

Profit

Old View

Sales

Price

Sales

Price

Mfg.

Cost

Cost + Profit = Sales Price

Value

Supplier Cost Increases

Profit

New Reality

Sales

Price

Either way

Mfg. Costs have

to decrease to

maintain or

increase profits

Mfg.

Cost

Profit = Sales Price - Cost

process layout and flow mass production system
Process Layout And FlowMass Production System

Lay it out

Raw Material

Receiving

Inspection

Store

WIP

WIP

WIP

Form

Clean

Trim

WIP

OP1

WIP

WIP

OP2

WIP

WIP

OP3

WIP

Punch

Clean

Heat Treat

WIP

OP4

WIP

WIP

OP5

WIP

WIP

OP6

WIP

Inspection

Store

WIP

Module 0013

separating the value added from non value added
Separating The Value AddedFrom Non-Value Added

Receive + Inspect + Move + Store +Count + Move

Anneal + Move + Wheelabrate + Inspect +Move

Mill to Face + Inspect + Move + Wash + Move +Store + Move

Turn Stem I.D. & O.D. +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move +Store +Move

Grind Top Face +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move +Store +Move

Drill C’Bore, Through Hole & Venthole + Inspect +Move +Deburr Venthole +Move

Mill Clearance +Inspect +Move +Wash +Degrease +Move

Carburize +Move

Anneal + Move +Degrease + Inspect +Move +Wash

Hone Stem I.D. +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move +Store +Move

Mill Nut Surface +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move

Measure it

Module 0013

separating the value added from non value added11
Separating The Value AddedFrom Non-Value Added

1. Why?

  • REDRILL & TAP + Move + Wash + Degrease + Move
  • INSTALL SCREWS + Move
  • HARDEN + Move + Degrease + Move
  • REMOVE SCREWS + Move
  • TEMPER + Move + Wheelabrate + Inspect + Move
  • HONE STEM I.D. + Inspect + Move + Wash + Move
  • FINISH GRIND TOP FACE + Inspect + Move + Wash + Move
    • Inspect "A" Dimensions + Move
    • Inspect "B" Dimensions + Move + Select Fatigue Test Samples + Store + Move
    • Audit + Move (If quality Audit is Acceptable) (Rejected - Rework) + Store
    • Receive in Finish Stock Room + Count + Store + Issue + Move
  • BAG + Inspect (If Acceptable) + Move
  • SHIPPING

2. Why?

3. Why?

4.Why?

5.Why?

SUMMARY:17 VALUE ADDED ELEMENTS / 93 NON-VALUE ADDED ELEMENTS

LEAD TIME: 345 HOURS/23 HOURS DAY = 15 DAYS

Module 0013

crosshead cell value added summary
Crosshead CellValue Added Summary

Small change

Module 0013

The Lean focus

process flow summary
Process Flow Summary

Sitting in a rack or in queue

Is lead-time important?…which should you attack first?

Typical

U.S. Average

Process Time

was 4%

Adding value

process layout flow and mass production process
Process Layout Flow AndMass Production Process

This could also be office structure process islands

  • HEAT
  • TREAT

CLEANING

RAW

MATERIALS

TO

FINISHED

STORES

TRIMMING

INSPECTION

RAW

MATERIAL

STORES

CUTTING

PUNCHING

FORMING

Module 0013

the general concept
The General Concept

Anywhere work is being done, waste is being generated.

1. Specify VALUEFrom your customer’s perspective, not yours. What does the customer want? What are they willing to pay for?

2. Identify the VALUE STREAM and Eliminate WasteThe entire value delivery process from inquiry to receipt of cash.

3. Make value FLOW - Ideally One-Piece-At-A-Time

4. Let the customer PULL value through the process.Not suppliers or machine technology

5. Pursue PERFECTION

Critical Ingredients Of Lean Are:

Module 0013

lean thinking defined
Lean Thinking-Defined
  • Human activity that absorbs resources but creates no value.
  • Mistakes that require rework.
  • Production of items no one wants so inventory piles up.
  • Processing steps which aren’t actually needed.
  • Movement of employees/goods without any purpose.
  • Downstream people/processes waiting for upstream activity.
  • Goods/services which do not meet the needs of the customer

Total Elimination of….

….Waste

Module 0013

lean manufacturing
Lean Manufacturing

The Fundamental Concept

Make What is needed

When it is needed

In the Amount Needed

Module 0013

new competitive realities
New Competitive Realities

As Time is Compressed, Quality, Productivity and Cost are Improved

You need more than cost reductions to steal customers away from your competition. You cannot cost reduce yourself to prosperity, you need to grow.

Module 0013

lean manufacturing20
Lean Manufacturing

Lean

  • Is a Methodology for the Systematic Elimination of Waste

Non-Lean

Rework

  • 7 Types of Waste
    • Overproduction
    • Waiting
    • Transportation
    • Unnecessary Processing
    • Inventory
    • Unnecessary Motion
    • Correction
    • + A Person

Stores

Applies to all

business processes!

Module 0013

waste of overproduction
Waste of Overproduction

THE PRIMARY WASTE

To produce more parts than necessary or at a rate faster than required.

(Both contribute to excess inventory and waste time that could be spent making required product.)

Module 0013

waste of correction
Waste Of Correction

To correct or repair a defect in materials or parts adds unnecessary costs. (rework)

Module 0013

waste of processing
Waste Of Processing

To process unnecessary work which does not advance or improve the quality of the product.

(performing multiple transactions to receive material, transacting parts into inventory... then take them out to load machines.)

Module 0013

waste of inventory
Waste Of Inventory

Inventory is a drain on an organization’s overhead. The greater the inventory, the higher the overhead costs become.

(With excess inventory, we cover-up unacceptable change over times, excessive downtime, and operator inefficiency)

Module 0013

waste of motion
Waste Of Motion

Any movement of people or machinery which does not contribute added value to the product.

(excessive walking distance between operations)

Module 0013

waste of waiting
Waste Of Waiting

Idle time between operations or events.

(operator waiting for machine to finish cycling or machine waiting for operator to load new parts)

Module 0013

why focus on human instead of equipment
Why Focus On HumanInstead Of Equipment?
  • Equipment is a sunk cost; it depreciates over time, wears out or becomes obsolete.
  • The Operator is an ongoing resource that should appreciate over time. They gain skill and knowledge.

Your competition can easily match you machine for machine

Your competitive edge is in how you deploy your value adding people

Module 0013

tools of the lean enterprise
Tools Of The Lean Enterprise

*5’s

*Visual Controls

*Process Mapping

*Supplier Certification

*Multi-skills training

*Kanban

*Cell layout(U shape)

*Autonomation

*POU inventory

*Takt time

*Right sizing

*Curtain

*5 Why’s

*Time observations

*Right Sizing

*1 part pull

*Single minute exchange of die (SMED)

*Line stop

*% loading

*Mistake proofing

*Normal/Abnormal

*Quality at source

*Standard Work

*Signal lights

*Value adding analysis

*TPM

Module 0013

5 s workplace organization steps
5-S WorkplaceOrganization Steps

1.SORT Clearly distinguish what is needed and what is not

Remove what does not support the least waste way

2.STRAIGHTEN Organize the way things are kept, making it easier

for anyone to find & return items to their proper

location in the sequence used

3. SHINE Keep things clean-floor, machines, desks, files

equipment-neat & tidy

4. STANDARDIZE Maintain & improve the first 3S’s

5. SUSTAIN Achieve the discipline / habit of properly

maintaining the correct procedures

lean manufacturing31
Lean Manufacturing
  • Involves the precise definition of Normal in such a way that the Abnormal is exposed in Real-Time and can be eliminated.
  • The result is a Continuous Improvement Environment

Module 0013

identify the waste

Waste

Identify The Waste

Based on Observation:

Normal vs. Abnormal

Value-AddedNon Value-Added

Eliminate

KaizenEliminate

Module 0013

don t forget
Don’t Forget
  • It is the not the person doing the work that is ugly. It is the Waste that is ugly.
  • We are not stripping people of their dignity.
  • We are attacking Waste

Waste

Monster

Module 0013

one piece flow model
One Piece Flow Model

TRIMMING

Fixture

CLEANING

Fixture

PUNCHING

Fixture

FORMING

Fixture

    • HEAT TREAT
  • Fixture

CUTTING

Fixture

FINISHED

STORES

Fixture

RAW

MATERIALS

Fixture

Module 0013

PART

physical layout
Physical Layout
  • Supports one piece flow
  • Supports Standard Work In Process
  • Supports Standard Work
  • Supports visual control

Each kaizen reduces the cell size Kaizen after Kaizen after Kaizen

Module 0013

visual controls
Visual Controls
  • The use of signals, lights, measurements, diagrams, charts & signs to :
    • Clearly define the normal or desired condition
    • Expose theabnormal undesired condition - real time
material replenishment system

Cards

Material Replenishment System
  • How they work
    • This same shelf with additional Visual Controls becomes more meaningful
  • Standard Work may be :
    • Green - normal
    • Yellow - reorder point passed
    • Red - replenishment past due, contact supplier immediately
    • Blue - abnormal, investigate - consumption changed, supplier overshipped

Module 0013

material replenishment system38

Need : valve - 636/11

Quantity : 2

Required : 10am

Where : 700 Cell

Material Replenishment System

1. Ensures

  • the right thing
    • ( Instrument, supply, etc … )
  • in the right quantity
  • at the right time
  • to the right location
  • in the right orientation

2. Simple signs used to trigger material replenishment according to usage at Takt time cadence

Module 0013

standard work
Standard Work
  • There can be no improvement … no Kaizen … without the basis of Standard Work
  • Standard Work details the motion of the operator

& the process sequence in producing a part

  • It is the statement of the least waste way of production through the best combination of people & equipment, the least amount of Work In Process possible, showing where to check for quality & where there are safety issues
  • It provides a routine for consistency of an operation & a basis for improvement

Not

machine

It tells us how to make one

to our TAKT time

Module 0013

single minute exchange of die
Single Minute Exchange Of Die

S.M.E.D.

  • A process for dramatically, logically & methodically reducing set up or changeover time
  • To enable the significant reduction of lot sizes & the approach towards single piece flow
  • Supports mixed model, daily production

The goal is to change a set up in one TAKT time

Large machine centers set ups must be done during machine cycle time

Level loaded demand (1A,1B,1A,1B)

Module 0013

In other words… PROFESSIONALISM

takt time

T.A. Time Available

S.U. Sold Units

TAKT Time = =

Takt Time
  • From the German word for “meter”
    • The time which reflects the rate at which customers buy one unit

We can work

with this

It is what it is

Not much you

can do about

this

Module 0013

5 why s
5 Why’s

1. Why did the system fail?

A: The motor burned out

2. Why did the motor burn out?

A: The shaft seized

3. Why did the shaft seize?

A: There was no lubrication

4. Why was there no lubrication?

A: The line filter was clogged

5. Why was the line filter clogged?

A: It was the wrong sized mesh!

Root Cause

Module 0013

slide43
TPM
  • The lack of TPM results in Breakdowns
    • Breakdowns are a result of undetected or ignored equipment deterioration
    • 75% of all equipment deterioration can be detected by a trained operator
    • The remaining 25% can be detected by trained maintenance technicians performing preventative & predictive maintenance …

… therefore all breakdowns can be prevented

Do a careful analysis of when the machine does not need to be run( lunch

periods,breaks, second shift, weekends, holidays etc.)

75% of all machine downtime is due to dirt and lack of proper lubrication.

Module 0013

process mapping
Process Mapping
  • A visual representation of a process that can include:
    • process steps
    • sequence
    • duration
    • distance
  • A process map can be constructed at a “high level - broad process steps

…or at a lower level - with process detail

You have to do more than just ask someone how long an operation takes. Generally, they will not include walking and waiting, and will give highly inaccurate set up times.

one part pull
One Part Pull
  • The opposite of batch production
  • Processing product one at a time at the unit level at which the product is sold
  • Lean Manufacturing delivers its greatest improvements, maximizes its problem exposure, and enables constant top quality when one part pull is relentlessly applied

Exposes the problems (Makes it ugly). It is hard to hide problems in the system with no buffer stock

Repairs are made on 1 part rather than the entire batch

Module 0013

mistake proofing
Mistake Proofing
  • Mistake proofing goal - Zero defects
    • Mistake Proofing is a method that uses simple, low cost devices to check each part at each operation to prevent mistakes from occurring

1. Built into product design

2. Built into process

3. Automatic check system

Work to achieve defect prevention

not defect detection

Module 0013

right sizing
Right Sizing
  • Only the right amount of resources …
      • equipment
      • space
      • work surface
      • material

… to support one piece flow

Must first improve the operation, then improve the

equipment. You do not want to size the equipment to

accommodate a wasteful cell

Module 0013

right sizing48
Right Sizing
  • Buy only the minimum amount of equipment, preferably built in house
  • Do not always think that expensive, high performance machines are always the best, but consider a consistency of the whole production
  • First “improve operation” and afterwards carry out “improvement of equipment”, otherwise it might cause the mechanization of waste.

Module 0013

multi skilled workers
Multi-Skilled Workers
  • The leanest process may require workers to provide effort in a variety of tasks
  • Rigid job classifications & definitions are in direct conflict with teamwork & reduce flexibility to meet customer needs
  • Multi skilled workers are capable of maximizing teamwork & performance

Especially important to 1 part flow in an

assembly operation

Module 0013

curtain operation
Curtain Operation
  • A Curtain Operation :
    • Is often out of the cell/build flow area
    • Does not lend itself to one piece flow
    • Could be a “batch type” operation such as heat treat or cure
    • Is often a monument
  • A Curtain Operation done effectively enables one piece flow

Module 0013

curtain operation51
Curtain Operation

Curtain

Operation

h

Inbound

Outbound

The rabbit chase

Module 0013

supplier certification
Supplier Certification
  • A tool designed to make suppliers take the full responsibility for the quality of their product, such that incoming inspection by the purchasing firm may be eliminated
  • Suppliers with proven track records of excellent performance are certified & expected to guarantee defect - free products

Requires a good deal of homework done

on your specifications and drawings

to make sure you are not the problem.

Module 0013

design for manufacturing and assembly
Design For ManufacturingAnd Assembly
  • A conscious process of making design decisions only after fully evaluating the manufacturing processes, tools, quality control measures & equipment impacts

Module 0013

quality function deployment
Quality Function Deployment
  • A technique where product performance features and the characteristics which deliver them are determined by the Voice of the Customer & paid heed to by the producer ( by listening & acting )
  • The quality responsibility is then deployed throughout the organization by tying compliance activities directly to the fulfillment of these customer requirements

Module 0013

standard work55
Standard Work

Standard work is a tool that defines the interaction of the operator and machine in producing a part.

It details the motion of the operator and the sequence of the machine. It provides a routine for consistency of an operation and a basis of improvement.

Module 0013

time observation
Time Observation
  • One of the critical tools for documenting reality
  • One time observation form per operator
  • Two observers for each operator.
    • One operates time piece
    • One records the information
  • Focus on the operator, not part flow or machine cycle time

Module 0013

standard work sheet

Master Cylinder

12345-678909

Scope of

From

Date prepared

Pick up raw material

Operations

To

or revised:

3-5-97

Finished product

L210

M110

Raw Material

3

2

1

L310

4

5

6

Finished Product

T420

7

Inspect

Quality

Safety

Standard Work-

# of Pieces of Std.

TAKT

Cycle

Operator

Check

Precaution

in-Process

Work-in-Process

Time

Time

Number

5

40”

40”

Standard Work Sheet

Module 0013

slide58

OPERATOR NUMBER

MODEL NUMBER AND NAME

QUOTA PER SHIFT

DATE PREPARED

Manual

Automatic

Walking

STANDARD WORK COMBINATION SHEET

WORK SEQUENCE

DEPT.

TAKT TIME

wwwwww

OPERATION TIME (IN SECONDS)

OPERATION NAME

TOTALS

WAITING 22

12

690

1/22/98

Spec. Steel

123

Fin. Grind O.D.

40”

STEP

TIME

NUMBER

Man.

Auto.

Walk

TT

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

45

50

p.u. & blow off part

3

--

--

40

1

2

unload, load, cycle start

5

23

--

3

gage 2 dia. - go/no go

3

--

2

4

load drill hopper

3

15

2

38

14

4

standard work sheet59
Standard Work Sheet

In the case where the cycle time does not come up to the Takt Time...

Ideally, the Cycle Time should equal the Takt Time

TT

TT

then not enough work has been assigned

CT =TT

Module 0013

tools to document reality
Tools To Document Reality
  • Time Observation Sheet
  • Standard Work Sheets
  • Standard Work Combination Sheet
  • Percent Loading Chart
  • Process Capacity
  • 5S Worksheet

Module 0013

lean manufacturing61
Lean Manufacturing
  • Involves the precise definition of Normal in such a way that the Abnormal is exposed in Real Time and can be eliminated.
  • The result is a Continuous Improvement Environment

Module 0013

make it ugly
Make It Ugly

Time

Observation

Studies

Process

Flow

Mapping

Takt Time

Analysis

Visual

Controls

waste

Module 0013

the goal
The Goal

Total Elimination of Waste

Module 0013

typical lean activities initiated at a kaizen event
Typical Lean Activities InitiatedAt A Kaizen Event
  • Cell layout
  • The 5’s
  • Right sizing
  • Signal lights
  • POU
  • Time observations
  • Kanbans
  • Value adding analysis
  • Takt time
  • Visual controls
  • 1 part pull systems
  • Curtain
  • Process mapping
  • Standard work

Module 0013

two steps forward one step back
Two Steps Forward, One Step Back
  • Implementation errors will occur, these should be rewarded if done for the right reason
  • Anchor Dragging is unacceptable
  • Steady State in our industry, or any other, will lead to failure
  • “It’s not OK to do nothing to improve our operation on the grounds that the risk of failure, (step backward) is
  • too high”

Two steps forward, one step back is OKNo steps forward is not

Bad news is

good news

Management

must monitor

step one
Step One
  • Choose Your Project Well
    • High Probability For Success
    • Good Visibility
    • Short In Duration
    • Requires Several “Lean Tools”
    • Is Measurable
step two
Step Two
  • Choose Your Team Well
    • Open Minded And Enthusiastic
    • Select People Who Work With The Product
      • Operators
      • Maintenance People
      • Supervisors
      • ME/IE
      • Planners
step three
Step Three
  • Train! Train! Train!
    • Overview Of Six Sigma
    • Continuous Improvement
    • Single Piece Build (Use The “Stockless Production” Video Made By Hewlett Packard
    • Use Your Black Belts
step four
Step Four
  • Calculate Takt Time
    • This Is The Customers Drum Beat
    • Takt Time = Units Purchased Per Day Divided Into Actual Time Available In A Shift
    • Example: 27,000 Seconds / 20 Units = 1350 Seconds Per Unit Or (1) Unit Every 22.5 Minutes
takt time71
Takt Time

The time (pace) required to produce a

product based on customer demand.

Time Available

Customer Demand

Often expressed as:

TAKT TIME =

Example: Elevator Manufacturer

-Customer Demand: 50 Hydraulic Elevators / Week

-Daily Demand: 10 Hydraulic Elevators

-Time Available: 435 Minutes / Day (480 min less cleanup, breaks)

435 / 10 = 43.5 Minutes per elevator = TAKT TIME

This pace must be maintained in order to satisfy customer demand!

cycle time
Cycle Time

The time for an operator

to do a prescribed task

and return to his/her

original stance.

lead time
Lead Time

The amount of time it takes

to convert raw materials into

finished goods (External Customer)

or to move goods from one part

of the process to another

(Internal Customer)

cycle time vs lead time
Cycle Time vs. Lead Time

Lead Time

Task

1

Task

2

Task

3

Task

4

Task

5

MOVE

WAIT

SET-UP

RUN

Cycle Time

takt time vs lead time
Takt Time vs. Lead Time

>TAKT Time is a rate of demand

>Lead Time is how long the whole process takes

>They are NOT related!

Lead Time

1 Unit / Minute

TAKT Time

PROCESS

WIP

Can a process have a 1 hour TAKT Time and a 6 month Lead Time?

step five
Step Five
  • Study The Project
    • Team Meetings To Discuss The Project
    • Set Objectives
      • 25% Improvement In Through Put
      • 50% Reduction In Floor Space
      • 65% Reduction In Inventory
      • Meeting The Takt Time
      • Establish The Metrics
batch vs one piece flow
Batch vs. One-Piece Flow

(Process oriented layout with Lot Size = 5)

Processing Time = 1 Minute / Unit

Process Flow

A

B

C

D

0

5

10

15

20

TIME ELAPSED (MINUTES)

Manufacturing Lead Time

NOTE: Typically, the distances between process is long in a process oriented layout, making difficult to transfer units one-by-one.

batch vs one piece flow78
Batch vs. One-Piece Flow

(Process oriented layout with Lot Size = 1)

Processing Time = 1 Minute / Unit

Process Flow

A

B

C

D

0

1

2

3

4

TIME ELAPSED (MINUTES)

Add the Balance of Units (4 x 1’/Unit)

8

Manufacturing Lead Time

boeing 737 lean cell80
Boeing 737 Lean Cell

One 737 airplane every 9 days

what you can expect
What you can Expect
  • “Value Stream Analysis Kaizen Training” contains what you need to know to get the job done, not everything you need to know to be an expert.
  • Part 1
    • Lean concepts and terminology
  • Part 2
    • The process by which we create future states
lean thinking
Lean Thinking
  • Value in the Eyes of the Customer
  • The ValueStream
  • Flow
  • Pullof the Customer
  • Perfection
value added
Value Added
  • Value is added any time we physically change our product towards what the customer is buying
  • If we are not adding value, we are adding cost or waste
  • Lean Manufacturing drives the systematic elimination of waste

Value-Added Time : Minutes

Time in Plant : Weeks

ORDER

CASH

KEY QUESTION – Are my customers willing to pay for this ????

value added vs non value added

Value added

5%

Non-value added

Typically 95% of Total Lead Time is Non-Value Added!!!

Value Added vs. Non-Value Added
  • Overproduction
  • Waiting
  • Transportation
  • Non-value added processing
  • Excess inventory
  • Excess motion
  • Defects

LEAN = ELIMINATING THE 7 WASTES

slide87

OVERPRODUCTION

7

TRANSPORTATION

INVENTORY

Wastes

PROCESSING

DEFECTS

WAITING

MOTION

ELIMINATE

7 basic types of waste toyota
7 Basic Types of Waste (Toyota)
  • Overproduction – producing more than what is demanded by the customer
  • Inventory – Storing more than the absolute minimum needed
  • Transportation – the unnecessary movement of materials
  • Waiting – waiting for the next process step
  • Excess processing – due to poor tool or product design
  • Wasted motion – unnecessary reaching, walking, looking for parts, tools, prints, etc
  • Defects – scrap and rework
what is flow
What is Flow ?
  • Producing and moving one item at a time (or a small and consistent batch of items) through a sequence of process steps as continuously as possible, with each step making just what is requested by the next step.

TRADITIONAL

CONTINUOUS FLOW

Lean Lexicon Version 1 p9

continuous flow more efficient faster
Continuous Flow – More Efficient & Faster

Traditional Batch Layout

Continuous Flow Layout

slide91

Supermarket Pull System

“Production” KANBAN

“Withdrawal” KANBAN

product

product

Mike RotherLearning to See

SUPERMARKET

CUSTOMER PROCESS goes to supermarket and withdraws what it needs when it needs it.

SUPPLYING PROCESS produces to replenish what was withdrawn.

PURPOSE: Controls production at supplying process without trying to schedule. Controls production between flows.

takt time92
Takt Time

Takt time paces production to the pace of customer requirements.

Total daily operating time

Takt Time =

Total daily customer requirement

Operating time = 1 shift x 8 hours – (2) 20-min. breaks = 440 mins/day

Customer 880 units/month

= = 44 units/day

Requirement 20 days/month

440 mins/day

Takt time = = 10 mins/unit

44 units/day

what is a value stream
What is a ValueStream ?
  • A ValueStream is all the actions, value creating and non-value creating, required to bring a product from order to delivery
    • Starts with raw materials
    • Finalizes at the end-customer
    • Involves several businesses
value stream mapping
Value Stream Mapping
  • Helps you to see the sources of waste in the value stream
    • Shows the flow of information and material
    • Forms the blueprint for lean implementation (Imagine trying to build a house without a blueprint).
    • Helps you to see more than just the single process level
    • Provides a common language for talking about manufacturing processes
    • Makes decisions about the flow apparent, so they can be discussed
    • Ties together lean concepts and techniques, which helps to avoid “cherry picking” Improvement projects

Mike RotherLearning to See

what is value stream analysis
What is Value Stream Analysis?
  • Value stream maps describe a value stream
  • Value stream analysis is a planning process
    • Uses value stream maps to communicate
      • Information Flow
      • Material Flow
  • Three value stream maps are created
    • Current state
    • Ideal state
    • Future state (3 months from now)
  • Action plans are developed for the future state map
the value stream analysis process
The Value Stream Analysis Process
  • Phase 1-Pre-event work
  • Phase 2-The Main Event
  • Phase 3-Accountability Process
pre event work
Pre-Event Work
  • Three weeks prior to the event
    • Determine team members
    • Define the objective of the team
    • Select the area and topic
    • Logistics (conf. Rm., times, facilitator supplies, etc.)
    • Invite team members to the event
    • Clarify roles and responsibilities
      • Event leader-value stream manager from the area (owns resources and results)
      • Event facilitator-CI Leaders who manage the improvement process and share in ownership of results
      • Subject matter experts
pre event work99
Pre-Event Work
  • Two weeks prior to the event
    • Part/quantity analysis (select representative part number)
    • Gather and review data (Yield, job closures, CONC, etc.)
    • Determine future demand
    • Review prior event data
    • Review any customer issues
    • Review any requirements for capital equipment
  • One week prior to the event
    • Verify customer demand
    • Review above data
the main event
The Main Event
  • Training
  • Gemba Walk
  • Value Stream Map-Current State
  • Develop Ideal State Map
  • Develop Future State Map (3 months out)
  • Develop Future State Plan
  • Management Report Out
vsm event steps 1 2 training and gemba walk
VSM Event Steps 1 &2Training and Gemba Walk
  • Training
    • The concepts of Lean need to be applied to classroom training as well as our other processes
      • This is a learn by doing process
      • We will minimize classroom learning
  • Gemba Walk
    • Gemba means, “shop floor” or “where the process is”
    • We need to go there so we know what we are mapping
slide103

VSM Event Step 3Current State Map

  • Value Stream Map-Current State
    • Map the physical flow (manufacturing loop, customer loop, supplier loop)
    • Map the information flow
    • Complete the lead time data bar
    • Visually identify waste
      • Identify value added/non-value added (red, yellow, green dots)
      • Visually identify the most significant opportunities with kaizen bursts.
    • Summarize all information and metrics (date, P/N, times, inventory, OTD, quality, etc.)
elements of value stream maps

Supplier

Customer

880

Monthly Orders

30 Days

MRP

Takt Time = 440 min/44 = 10 min/unit

Bi-Monthly

Op 1

Op 2

Op 3

Op 4

Op 5

Op 6

45 Days

2 Days

2 Days

5 Days

1 Day

1 Day

1 Day

S/U = 0.08 hrCT = 0.9 min

S/U = 0.08 hrCT = 0.9 min

S/U = 0

CT = 60 min

S/U = 0.08 hrCT = 1.2 min

S/U = 1.95 hr

CT = 40.3 min

S/U = 1 hrCT = 1.6 min

45

1

2

2

1

5

1

1.6

0.9

0.9

60

1.2

40.3

Total = 57 DaysTotal = 1 Hr. 44.9 Min.

Elements of Value Stream Maps

Information

Supplier Loop

Customer Loop

Manufacturing Loop

Lead Time Data Bar

slide105

Manufacturing Loop Questions

  • What are the changeover times?
  • What are the quantity of machines per process?
  • Count all work in process (WIP)
  • Look for evidence of quality problems
  • Look for processing waste
  • Is there great distances between processes?
  • Is the product flexible or made to order?
  • Is there obvious batch processing?
slide106

G.M.

AT&T

Customer Loop Questions

  • Who and where are your customers?
  • What are the product lines or families?
  • Future marketing plans? Review growth
  • potential.
  • What is the total yearly order requirement? Quantity by product family or product type
  • What is the high, low and mean ordering pattern? Monthly or quarterly high & low for several periods
  • How often do we deliver to our customer?
  • What takt time do we supply to?
slide107

Production Control Questions

  • Where in the production chain do we trigger production?
  • How much work do we release at one time?
  • How long does it take to go from customer order to production order?
  • How do we physically schedule production?
  • How do we react to customer emergencies?
slide108

Supplier Loop Questions

  • #1 question, how do you tell supplierswhat to ship, make, etc.?
  • When and how often do they get purchaseorders from Customers?
  • When and how do we change the purchase order?
  • When and how often do suppliers ship product and how?Is it level? (Truck, train, etc.)
  • Do we have standard pack quantities?
  • Are suppliers aware of our inventory quantities?
  • Are we sure of suppliers inventory? How?
  • Do we have a supplier training program?
information flow questions
Information Flow Questions
  • How are the manufacturing and procurement orders distributed?
    • Who gets them
    • How frequently
    • What is the process of generating them
  • How are the shop order schedules generated and revised? Are there “shortage meetings”? What parts of the manufacturing loop are scheduled by MRP? Make sure to document the informal (hot lists) as well as formal (MRP) information channels.
slide110

Current State Lead Time Data Bar

Lead

Time

Total

Cycle Time

(CT)

DOH Inventory

8 Days

4 Days

12 Days

4 Hrs

(1 Hr.)

4 Hrs

VA Time (yes/no)

CT Total

slide111

COMPUTER WIP

Mapping Icons

slide112

Visually Identify Waste

  • As a team, review each process step for elements that are value added and non value added
  • Each step can have any combination of value added, type 1 waste and/or type 2 waste
    • Identify value added with a green dot
    • Identify type 1 waste (waste but unavoidable in the current state) with a yellow dot
    • Identify type 2 waste (pure waste, eliminate immediately) with a red dot
  • As type 2 waste is identified, generate the actions to remove it (this will be the beginning of the future state implementation plan)
  • Prioritize the waste opportunities and identify the biggest opportunities on the CS map with kaizen bursts
slide113

VSM Event Step 4Ideal State Map

  • Avoid shared resources
  • Assume that anything is possible
    • Our customers are happy
    • Our profits are up
    • High job satisfaction
    • Capital is available if needed
  • Create an ideal state map
    • Map the physical flow
    • Map the information flow
    • Complete the lead time data bar
slide114

VSM Event Step 5Future State Map (3 months out)

  • What of the ideal state map can be implemented in 3 months?
  • Identify short term goals
    • LEAD TIME
    • INVENTORY
    • PRODUCTIVITY
    • QUALITY
    • CAPACITY
  • Work from your current state map
slide115

VSM Event Step 6Future State Plan

  • This plan answers the question, “what actions need to be completed in the next 90 days to achieve the future state?
    • Think back to the “visually identify waste” step
    • Plan addresses all “red dots” and Kaizen bursts
slide116

VSM Event Step 7Management Report Out

  • This report out is how the team publicly commits to management
    • What the goal of the event was
    • What was learned
    • What was accomplished during the event
    • What the outcome is. How much better will we be?
    • Description of the future state
    • Commitment of the action plan
the accountability process
The Accountability Process
  • The momentum for improvement is never higher then at the end of the event when everyone can really see the waste. As a result the accountability process must start immediately following the event (next day).
  • Display the current state map, future state map and future state plan in the the affected area.
  • Commit to a stand up meeting in front of the maps and plan (daily at first, and then less frequent as applicable)
    • Focus on Due date control. Not meeting dates is letting the team down