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Overview of Managing Public & Nonprofit Org. Catastrophies such as 9/11 and Katrina underscore the importance of effective organization and management of public organizations However, we are ambivalent about government…it’s a love-hate relationship often influenced by ideology.

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overview of managing public nonprofit org
Overview of Managing Public & Nonprofit Org.
  • Catastrophies such as 9/11 and Katrina underscore the importance of effective organization and management of public organizations
  • However, we are ambivalent about government…it’s a love-hate relationship often influenced by ideology
what is management
What is Management?
  • Many different perspectives and frameworks for studying management
  • We will focus on organization theory and behavior from a public perspective
  • Our basic framework will examining the structures, processes and people of public and nonprofit organizations
  • See p. 18 of Rainey for a broad definition of an organization
course topics
Course Topics
  • Foundational theories
  • Environment and networks
  • Forms of organizing
  • Leadership, power & org. culture
  • Motivation
  • Communication & conflict
  • “New” governance
the study of management is important
The Study of Management is Important!
  • Consider rise of MPA programs like UNCW
  • Need to address nonprofits as well as government orgs (QENO)
  • Management as a second profession
major schools of thought
Major Schools of Thought
  • Purpose of studying management is to build your “conceptual tool kit” – that is, provide multiple frameworks or perspectives for understanding orgs. and situations. Examples:
  • Scientific Management Theory
  • Administrative Management Theory
major schools of thought6
Major Schools of Thought
  • Human Relations Theory
  • Human Resources Theory
  • Systems Theory
  • Quality Management Theory
  • Organizational Culture & Leadership Theory
learning from experience
Learning from Experience
  • We will learn about management by integrating theory (Rainey & Tompkins) and practice (Ashworth and each other).
  • Observe your bosses carefully

-- learn from both the good and the bad

-- importantly, tell them what they need to know, not what they want to hear (tactfully!)

learning from experience8
Learning from Experience
  • Ethics must be the foundation for practice

-- first, trust your instincts (don’t ignore discomfort)

-- second, draw on multiple sources of guidance for how to conduct yourself (upbringing, faith, loyalty to superiors and organization, history, personal conscience)

-- for public service career, look particularly close to “democratic and constitutional imperative”

(p. 165 in Ashworth)

learning from experience9
Learning from Experience
  • Develop a persona like an egg with a semi-porous shell
  • There is a substantial universality of experience in public service that transcends geography or agency
  • You are permitted to get frustrated, but never thoroughly discouraged or disenchanted
learning from experience10
Learning from Experience
  • You can’t learn unless you get into the fray!
  • Stretch your comfort zone…take on new tasks or challenges that scare you a bit!
foundational theories
Foundational Theories
  • The Systems Metaphor

-- inputs, throughputs, outputs

-- feedback (single vs. double-loop)

-- closed vs. open or adaptive systems

  • Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management

-- each task can be broken down and “one best way” discovered to attain most efficient process

foundational theories12
Foundational Theories
  • Max Weber and the Ideal Bureaucracy

-- based on legal and rational forms of authority rather than tradition or charisma-based

-- focus on hierarchical lines of authority, rules, consistency, specialized expertise, stability

-- raised concerns about need for individual freedom, creativity, flexibility

foundational theories13
Foundational Theories
  • Administrative Management School: Principles of Administration

-- POSDCORB

-- span of control (between 6-10 subordinates)

-- one master for each subordinate

-- clear delegation and accountability

-- task homogeneity – dissimilar tasks should not be grouped together

-- significant contribution, but what about people?

foundational theories14
Foundational Theories
  • Mary Parker Follett and the Law of the Situation

-- the “giving of orders’ should be based on a shared understanding between superiors and subordinates of the particular situations and what it requires

  • Hawthorne Studies: Discovery of Human Beings in the Workplace

-- social situation and psychology matters

foundational theories15
Foundational Theories
  • Chester Barnard and The Importance of the Executive

-- leaders induce and coordinate key cooperative activities

-- incentives matter, not just money but also power, prestige, fulfillment of ideals

-- leaders are key in shaping organization culture

-- the informal organization is as important to understand as the formal structure

foundational theories16
Foundational Theories
  • Herbert Simon and Bounded Rationality

-- focus on how decisions are made in organizations

-- strictly rational decisions and choices are impossible in complex situations

-- administrators “satisfice” or choose the best of a limited set of alternatives within the constraints of limited information and time

foundational theories17
Foundational Theories
  • Kurt Lewin and Organizational Change

-- groups and individuals maintain a “quasi- stationary equilibrium” in their attitudes and behaviors

-- equilibrium results from a balance between forces pressing for change and those pressing against change (basis for force field analysis)

-- must unfreeze and refreeze

foundational theories18
Foundational Theories
  • Organizational Development

-- Action research

-- Participative decision making (PDM)

  • Human Relations School

-- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

-- McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

foundational theories19
Foundational Theories
  • Contingency Theory

-- organizations are open systems that respond to social, economic and technological imperatives (Tavistock Institute)

-- successful firms must have internal structures as complex as their environments (Lawrence & Lorsch)

-- organizations tend to be organic or mechanistic (Burns & Stalker)

distinctive context of public management
Distinctive Context of Public Management
  • Fragmented Authority

-- multiple masters

  • Open and Responsive Decision Process

-- operating in a “goldfish bowl”

  • Ambiguous and Intangible Goals

-- difficult to define and control success

distinctive context of public management21
Distinctive Context of Public Management
  • Procedural Constraints

-- emphasis on accountability restrains managerial discretion

  • Political Constraints

-- numerous stakeholders with varying levels of influence depending on the issue

-- places premium on negotiating, conflict resolution and coalition-building skills

distinctive context of nonprofit management
Distinctive Context of Nonprofit Management
  • Working With/Under a Board
  • Funding Constraints

-- grants, foundations, donors

  • Mission-Driven vs. Money-Driven
  • Competition vs. Collaboration
  • Managing volunteers
distinctiveness of public management
Distinctiveness of Public Management
  • Working with Politicians

-- very current-issue oriented

-- they are on top

-- a manager must keep professional distance and avoid inserting personal views

-- their world is trade-offs, swapping, making deals, comprising

-- you must be focused when you need them

-- you must be willing to “be the fireplug”

distinctiveness of public management24
Distinctiveness of Public Management
  • Working with the Press

-- consider them another branch of government

-- be very careful about “off the record” comments (the recorder is always on!)

-- consider their point of view

-- be brief; try to boil down complex issues

-- don’t make assumptions about what they know

-- don’t let them control the interview…know the one or two points you want to make and bore in

environment of public organizations
Environment of Public Organizations
  • Environmental scanning can be an effective tool for understanding organizational structure & behavior:

-- technological conditions

-- legal conditions

-- political conditions

-- economic conditions

environment of public organizations26
Environment of Public Organizations
  • Environmental scanning (cont’d):

-- demographic conditions

-- ecological conditions

-- cultural conditions

  • Organizations are impacted by their environments but can enact their own environment as well
environment key concepts
Environment: Key Concepts
  • Turbulence and interconnectedness characterize the environments of most public organizations.
  • Organizations can adapt their structures in response to their environment, or they can change their niches.

-- huge issue with nonprofits!

environment key concepts28
Environment: Key Concepts
  • Efficiency not necessarily the highest priority in the design of U.S. government

-- external authorities, the media, interest groups and citizens also demand effectiveness, timeliness, reliability, and reasonableness

-- remember the three E’s: efficiency, effectiveness and equity; sometimes uncomfortable bedfellows!

competing values framework
Competing Values Framework
  • How to make sense out of all the different org. theories and perspectives in a way that us useful toward understanding org. and org. behavior?
  • Quinn & Rohrbaugh suggest it boils down to the specific criteria or values being used to assess…and they all are important depending on the context.
competing values focus
Competing Values: Focus
  • Internal concernwith well-being of employees
  • External concernfor the well-being of the organization
competing values structure
Competing Values:Structure
  • Concern for flexibility and change
  • Concern for stability and control
competing values framework32
Competing Values Framework
  • Parsons: to be a viable “social system” an organization is subject to “functional imperatives”:
  • Adaptive Function

-- acquire resources and adjust to forces in external environment

  • Goal Attainment Function

-- develop plans and direct their accomplishment

competing values framework33
Competing Values Framework
  • Integrative Function

-- coordinate the work activities toward goals

  • Pattern Maintenance Function

-- ensure continued commitment of members

  • Tension Management Function

-- iron out tensions that inevitably arise

competing values framework34
Competing Values Framework
  • Means-oriented values

-- cohesion, morale, communication, planning, goal-setting

  • Ends-oriented values

-- growth, resource acquisition, productivity

competing values framework35
Competing Values Framework
  • When these three dimensions are juxtaposed, they reveal four competing models of org. effectiveness:

-- human relations model (Quadrant 1)

-- open systems model (Quadrant 2)

-- rational goal model (Quadrant 3)

-- internal process model (Quadrant 4)

competing values framework36
Competing Values Framework
  • Contradictions abound between different values and frameworks
  • However, organizations face such competition among values
  • Successful managers must balance or concurrently manage competing values
  • Consider how Blast in Centralia case illustrates…
focus on goal attainment q3
Focus on Goal Attainment (Q3)
  • Rational Goal Model
  • Importance of planning & goal setting
  • Focus on productivity & efficiency
  • Leadership role is Director & Producer
focus on goal attainment q338
Focus on Goal Attainment (Q3)
  • Organizations are goal-directed, purposive entities.
  • A basic assumption is that public organizations will perform better if the people in them clarify their goals and measure progress against them.
  • Reflects the huge investment in stating goals and performance measures.
focus on goal attainment q339
Focus on Goal Attainment (Q3)
  • Roots of rational goal model are in the Scientific Management, Administrative Management, and Bureaucratic Theories
  • Critical managerial task of a Director is to set clear goals, plan, measure against them, and hold people accountable for the results
focus on goal attainment q340
Focus on Goal Attainment (Q3)
  • However, in the public and nonprofit sectors, goal setting is a huge challenge

-- no “bottom line” like private sector

  • For example, goals can be ambiguous, multiple, and conflicting

-- result can be debilitating for employees

focus on goal attainment q341
Focus on Goal Attainment (Q3)
  • Major tool for addressing the goal challenge is Strategic Planning & Management
  • Key elements:

-- establishing clear vision and mission

-- conducting SWOT analysis

-- identifying key strategic issues

-- identifying short & long-term goals in support

focus on internal processes q4
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • Importance of information management and communication
  • Focus on stability and control
  • Leadership role is Coordinator & Monitor
focus on internal processes q443
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • Roots of internal processes model is bureaucratic theory
  • Basic assumption is that organizational performance is enhanced by maximizing rationality through

-- fixed official duties, hierarchy of authority, system of rules, task specialization and written documentation

focus on internal processes q444
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • Critical managerial task as a Coordinator & Monitor is to supervise in a top-down manner, ensure the standardization of work processes & skills, integrate the efforts of work groups, and ensure legal compliance with rules and regulations.
focus on internal processes q445
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • The focus on internal processes is critical, but the bureaucratic model presents serious challenges:

-- emphasis on impersonal application of rules & procedures (creates alienation or anomie)

-- dehumanizing impact on workers

-- specialization & hierarchy creates communication obstacles & narrow sense of responsibility

-- institutional rigidity and goal displacement

focus on internal processes q446
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • Tools that address the challenges of bureaucracy are adjusting organizational structures and organizing through work groups or teams
  • Different org. structures include:

-- by function

-- by program, product or service

-- by matrix, client or process (see Graham & Hays reading)

focus on internal processes q447
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • Focus on groups or teams came about because they influence communication and conflicts among their members and between themselves and other groups.
  • Groups & teams also seen as a way of dealing with the problems created by bureaucracy
focus on internal processes q448
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • Group participation in decision making can enhance the quality of decisions and acceptance of change within an organization (SNF stages)
  • Groups can bring more knowledge, info, and approaches than individuals
  • Groups can provide sense of belonging or cohesion within an impersonal bureaucracy
focus on internal processes q449
Focus on Internal Processes (Q4)
  • A well-documented problem with groups is Groupthink, or tendency towards unconscious conformity by members…symptoms are:

-- stereotyping the opposition, overestimating one’s own position, stifling dissent

  • See Rainey (p. 338) for tips to avoid this phenomenon
focus on human relations q1
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Importance of cohesion and morale
  • Focus on human resource development
  • Leadership role is Mentor & Facilitator
focus on human relations q151
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Roots of human relations model in work of Mary Parker Follett, Fritz Roethlisberger, and Elton Mayo.
  • Basic assumption is that the human side of organizations matter…focusing on goals, structure and processes tells us nothing about how to manage people effectively.
focus on human relations q152
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Follett believed that humans have an inherent need to associate with others, develop social bonds, and participate in collective life.
  • Humans have a need for self-expression and for self-realization through groups.
focus on human relations q153
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Follett was a pioneer in modern conflict resolution through her concept of integration…a useful conceptual tool.
  • She argued that conflict is typically resolved through either domination or compromise. Both techniques are flawed…why?
focus on human relations q154
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Integration is achieved by intermingling the ideas and perspectives of each party as concerns are discussed (called interpenetration).
  • As mutual understanding and a sense of interdependence are created, new ways of thinking about the situation emerge that integrate interests (instead of positions).
focus on human relations q155
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Another useful concept from Follett is the “law of the situation.”
  • One person should not give orders to another person, but both should agree to take their orders from the situation.
  • Implications for management?
focus on human relations q156
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Mayo focused on adverse effects of social disorganization and irrational tendencies of otherwise normal individuals in the workplace.
  • Roethlisberger focused on organizations as social systems and significance of aligning the formal and informal organization.
focus on human relations q157
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Classic research studies fueled the human relations model.
  • Hawthorne studies showed that higher morale improved productivity by:

-- relaxed supervision (less fear & anxiety)

-- social cohesion or solidarity

-- personal attention/sympathetic treatment

-- participative decision making

focus on human relations q158
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • Bank Wiring Observation Room

-- output can be determined by group norms rather than individual effort and skill (“rate busters” or :chiselers” socially ostracized)

-- social cliques within the organization established informal status levels and addressed problems outside of the formal structure and hierarchy

focus on human relations q159
Focus on Human Relations (Q1)
  • The focus on humans has had a tremendous impact on the understanding of decision making.
  • Decision making from a rational goal (Q3) and internal process (Q4) perspective highlights the rational decision making process.
decision making
Decision Making
  • Rational Decision-Making Model

1. Decision makers know all the relevant goals clearly

2. Decision makers clearly know the values used in assessing those goals and know their preferences among the goals and can rank order them.

3. All alternative means for achieving the goals are examined.

4. They choose the most efficient of the alternative means for maximizing the goals.

decision making61
Decision Making
  • However, in reality managers strive for rationality, but cognitive limits, uncertainties, and time limits create a condition of bounded rationality.
  • Thus managers do not maximize rationality, they “satisfice”…….
decision making62
Decision Making
  • Managers practice incrementalism, or “muddle through” by concentrating on increments to existing circumstances or conditions (e.g., incremental vs. zero-base budgeting).
  • Also, requirement for political consensus and compromise; bureaucratic cultures and power chip away at attempts to act rationally (Graham Allison).
decision making63
Decision Making
  • March & Olson suggest that a garbage can is the best metaphor for decision making in the real world:

Decision making occurs when a variety of elements come together – the right problem arises when the right decision-making participants are receptive to an available solution, all coming together in a choice opportunity. The model emphasizes that the linkages between these elements are as much coincidental as they are a product of rational calculation (Rainey, p. 168).

  • Implications for manager?
decision making64
Decision Making
  • The human relations model also points out the impact of personality on decision making (consider the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator).

-- Extroversion-Introversion

-- Sensing-Intuition

-- Thinking-Feeling

-- Judgment-Perception

  • Implications for manager?
focus on adaptation function q2
Focus on Adaptation Function (Q2)
  • Importance of flexibility & readiness to succeed in an uncertain environment
  • Focus on growth and resource acquisition
  • Leadership role is Innovator & Broker
focus on adaptation function q266
Focus on Adaptation Function (Q2)
  • Roots of adaptation function is in the work of open systems theorists such as Katz & Kahn and James Thompson.
  • K&K emphasized the role played by environmental or external forces in shaping organizational norms & structures and internal stresses and strains.
focus on adaptation function q267
Focus on Adaptation Function (Q2)
  • Thompson described how organizations must engage in exchange relationships with other org. to obtain needed resources and develop strategies for maintaining their dependence (e.g., exerting control over other org., altering their internal structures, redefining their goals).
focus on adaptation function q268
Focus on Adaptation Function (Q2)
  • An increasingly chaotic, rapidly changing world has heightened the importance of this quadrant.
  • Emphasizes the importance of concepts such as feedback mechanisms, assessment, benchmarking, and strategic planning.
  • Implications for managers?
crisis management lessons
Crisis Management Lessons
  • After immersing ourselves in major org./management models and their underlying values and dominant perspectives…we will focus on cross-cutting, major management themes.
  • Crisis management is useful to study because of what stress reveals about an organization.
crisis management lessons70
Crisis Management Lessons
  • Practical Tips :

-- Explicitly acknowledge wrongdoing

-- Fully accept responsibility

-- Express regret

-- Identify with injured stakeholders

-- Ask for forgiveness

-- Seek reconciliation with injured stakeholders

crisis management lessons71
Crisis Management Lessons
  • Practical Tips

-- Fully disclose information related to the offense

-- Provide an explanation that addresses legitimate expectations of the stakeholders

-- Offer to perform an appropriate corrective action

-- Offer appropriate compensation

crisis management lessons72
Crisis Management Lessons
  • Repeated failure to follow guidelines can reveal underlying management problems:

-- Goal displacement

-- Dehumanization/technicism

-- Inappropriate organization culture

crisis management lessons73
Crisis Management Lessons
  • Sharing harsh truths with the public
  • Accepting the burden of higher expectations
  • Establishing appropriate accountability systems
  • Fostering trust by building community
organizational culture
Organizational Culture
  • Schein definition: “patterns of shared basic assumptions that the group has learned as it solved its problems that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.”
organizational culture75
Organizational Culture

Cultures have three levels:

  • Artifacts

-- visible organizational structures & processes

  • Espoused Values

-- strategies, goals, philosophies; stated theories

  • Basic underlying assumptions

-- unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts and feelings; theories in-use

leadership theories
Leadership Theories
  • Trait Theories

-- search for characteristics associated with those considered effective leaders, e.g.

-- intelligence

-- physical stature or prowess

-- enthusiasm

-- persistence

-- energy

  • However, no consistent common set!
leadership theories77
Leadership Theories
  • Ohio State Studies

-- concern for relationships with subordinates

-- emphasis on setting standards, assigning roles, pressing for productivity and performance

-- set the stage for further research on these two dimensions of leadership behavior

leadership theories78
Leadership Theories
  • Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid

-- characterized organizations according to concern for people and concern for production (building on Ohio State Studies)

-- developed grid with four types of leadership:

-- authority-obedience management

-- country club management

-- impoverished management

-- team management (ideal)

leadership theories79
Leadership Theories
  • Situational Leadership

-- best style of leadership depends on the situation; e.g.

-- Directive: leaders gives specific directions and expectations

-- Supportive: marked by encouraging, sympathetic relations

-- Achievement-Oriented: set high goals

-- Participative: encourages opinions/suggestions

leadership theories80
Leadership Theories
  • Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership
  • Transactional: lead by tangible incentives (sticks and carrots)
  • Transformational: lead through vision
leadership theories81
Leadership Theories
  • Transformational Behaviors

-- idealized influence

-- intellectual stimulation

-- individualized consideration

-- inspirational motivation

  • Transactional Behaviors

-- contingent reward

--passive or active management by exception

leadership theories82
Leadership Theories
  • Ethical Leadership

-- “managers do things right; leaders do the right thing”: managing and leading are different!

  • Servant Leadership

-- inverted paradigm of traditional concept of the leader on top who influences followers; role of leader is to empower subordinates, give them what they need to shine – “lead from behind”

leadership issues
Leadership Issues
  • Are leaders made or born?
  • Differences in male vs. female leadership styles
  • Management/leadership as a “second profession” (beyond technical competence)
work motivation
Work Motivation
  • Maslow Needs Hierarchy

-- Physiological Needs

-- Safety Needs

-- Social Needs

-- Self-Esteem Needs

-- Self-Actualization Needs

  • McClelland

-- need for Achievement, Power & Affiliation

work motivation85
Work Motivation
  • Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory

-- hygiene factors vs. motivators

  • McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y

-- people need control & direction (X)

-- people want to grow, develop, be challenged

  • Equity Theory

-- people search for equity in contributions & rewards (“psychological contract”)

work motivation86
Work Motivation
  • Expectancy Theory

-- work effort is a function of the perceived desirability of the outcomes associated with working at a certain level and the expectancies of achieving the outcomes.

  • Operant Conditioning

-- positive & negative reinforcement

-- operant extinction

-- punishment

  • Goal-Setting Theory

-- challenging, specific goals lead to higher performance

work motivation87
Work Motivation
  • Job Satisfaction
  • Role Conflict & Ambiguity
  • Job Involvement
  • Organizational Commitment
  • Professionalism
work motivation methods
Work Motivation Methods
  • Improved performance appraisal systems
  • Merit pay/pay for performance
  • Participative management and decision making
  • Work enhancement: job redesign, job enlargement, and rotation
  • Quality of Work Life programs
work motivation89
Work Motivation
  • Public Service Motivation

-- Rational: public servants are drawn to government to participate in the formulation of good public policy, which can be exciting, dramatic, etc.

-- Normative: desire to serve the public interest

-- Affective: genuine conviction about the social importance of government/nonprofit work

work motivation90
Work Motivation
  • Career Anchor Theory

-- Schein’s research that suggests each of us has a primary career anchor….an aspect of our work that is of fundamental importance to us…that we would least want to give up…

  • Reinforces belief that a leader/manager does not “motivate” but rather focuses on finding the best fit for people…
communication
Communication
  • The communication process involves four components:

-- a source (or sender) produces or encodes a message

-- the message is transmitted via a medium (or channel) to…

-- a receiver (audience) who decodes the message and gives…

-- the sender feedback about how well the message has been received

communication92
Communication
  • Sending the message

-- avoid ambiguous verbal or written messages that can be interpreted or misinterpreted

e.g. “faculty must have several publications, some of which must be in refereed journals”

-- be aware of the physical aspects of a message such as your body language and tone

e.g. saying you are here to help from behind a desk, frowning with arms crossed

communication93
Communication
  • Sending the message (cont’d)

-- message structure matters (material at beginning or end are more likely to be noticed and remembered; summarizing is key

-- facts alone are insufficient to change attitudes

(perceptions and emotions must be addressed)

-- consider different messages depending on direction of communication (downward, upward, lateral, external)

communication94
Communication
  • The medium or channel for message

-- “the medium is the message”

-- tremendous range today due to technology

-- must consider implications of personal vs. non- personal channels

-- audience as well as type of info matters

-- often best to use multiple channels to reinforce

(e.g, follow up personal message with email)

communication95
Communication
  • The receiver of the message (audience)

Avoid false assumptions:

-- the audience is a group of specialists

-- the audience is familiar with the material

-- the audience wants to receive the message

-- the audience has time to read or listen to the entire message

-- one style of writing or speaking is appropriate for all situations

communication96
Communication
  • Feedback from the receiver to the sender

-- must know how message has been received

-- look for non-verbal cues (with caution)

-- most importantly…

Check and/or ask!!!

communication97
Communication
  • Remember that most people are lousy listeners! Common habits to avoid:

-- selective listening

-- being a “fixer”

-- absolute statements (never, always, forever)

-- daydreaming; not being in the present/focused

-- being right

-- derailing

-- being the reactor

-- name calling or belittling

conflict management
Conflict Management
  • Two behavioral dimensions that determine how an individual approaches conflict:

-- assertiveness: taking action to satisfy one’s own needs and concerns

-- cooperativeness: taking action to satisfy the other party’s needs and concerns

-- examined together, five types of approaches are available to follow in a conflict

conflict management99
Conflict Management
  • Avoiding: low on assertiveness and cooperativeness
  • Accommodating: low on assertiveness and high on cooperativeness
  • Competing: high on assertiveness and low on cooperativeness
  • Compromising: lies in the middle of both dimensions
  • Collaborating: high on both assertiveness and on cooperativeness
conflict management100
Conflict Management
  • Key steps toward collaborative conflict management:

1. Face the conflict

2. Get the other party to face the conflict

3. Schedule a meeting in a neutral setting

4. Establish a collaborative context

5. Discuss your positions until your reach a mutual definition of the conflict

conflict management101
Conflict Management
  • Steps toward collaborative management

6. Discuss the nature of your interdependence and identify your mutual goals

7. Use divergent thinking to develop several potential solutions

8. Integrate several solutions to create a mutually beneficial solution

9. Make a commitment to this solution

10. Reflect on what you have learned

conflict management102
Conflict Management
  • Other tips from experience:

-- beware the land of the passive aggressive!

-- people appreciate authenticity…express what you really want from a situation and where you are coming from

-- when in doubt, talk (and be honest!)

normal accidents
Normal Accidents
  • Perrow contends that certain types of highly technological systems like nuclear power plants (or emergency response systems?) are intrinsically unmanageable and subject to serious accidents (or mistakes?) which he calls “normal” in the sense that they are unavoidable…they are due to unforeseeable combinations of multiple small failures which combined are fatal…and they cannot be understood and corrected by humans regardless of their training or intelligence….
normal accidents104
Normal Accidents
  • Multiple Simple Causes
  • Fatal Combinations of Simple Causes
  • The Fatal Combinations are Unforeseeable
  • The Incomprehensibility of Normal Accidents While They are Occurring
  • Management Implications?.......
organizational change
Organizational Change
  • Stages of Organizational Life

-- entrepreneurial stage

-- collectivity stage

-- formalization and control stage

-- structural elaboration & adaptation

organizational development
Organizational Development
  • Key phases of action research model for org. development:

-- perception of a problem

-- data collection

-- feedback

-- diagnosis

-- action planning

-- evaluation

organizational development107
Organizational Development
  • The step in OD is the integrity of the data collection & feedback stages
  • Involve all levels of the organization
  • Ask three basic questions:

-- What helps you be effective in this org?

-- What keeps you from being effective?

-- If you had a “magic wand” what would you change?

total quality management tqm
Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • Emphasis on customer
  • Working with supplier relationships
  • Focus on measurement, assessment & benchmarking
  • Based on teamwork, trust, communication (drive out fear, unhealthy competition))
  • Well-developed training
  • Broad org. commitment (culture)
reinventing government movement
Reinventing Government Movement
  • Catalytic (foster public-private partnerships)
  • Community-Owned (empower local communities & groups)
  • Competitive (inject competition)
  • Mission-Driven (rather than rules & procedures)
  • Results-Oriented (outcomes vs. outputs)
  • Customer-Driven (surveys & choices)
privatization
Privatization
  • Granting a franchise to private operators
  • Providing vouchers
  • Using volunteers
  • Providing subsidies/financial incentives
  • Initiating self-help or co-production programs
  • Selling off activities to private operators
issues in privatization
Issues in Privatization
  • Ideologically appealing (gov’t should be run more like a business) but the devil is in the details:

-- accountability, control, illusion of competition, consequences of profit focus on services, legal liability, citizen expectations)

  • Raises question of “inherently” governmental functions
leading managing collaborations
Leading/Managing Collaborations
  • “New Governance” literature shifts the emphasis from traditional management skills and the control of large bureaucratic organizations to enablement skills, the skills required to engage partners arrayed horizontally in networks, to bring multiple stakeholders together for a common end in a situation of interdependence.
leading managing collaborations113
Leading/Managing Collaborations
  • Crosby notes “…in today’s world no single person, group or organization has the power to resolve any major public problem; yet at the same time, many people, groups and organizations have a partial responsibility to act on such problems. Everyone has the ability to say no to proposed solutions, and not enough people have the vision, faith, hope, courage, and will to say yes.”
leading managing collaborations114
Leading/Managing Collaborations
  • Key skills required:

-- Activation skills required to activate the networks of actors increasingly required to address public problems.

-- Orchestration skills needed to sustain a collaborative by setting the tempo, interpreting, setting boundaries & expectations

-- Modulation skills necessary to elicit the cooperative behavior required from interdependent players in a complex network