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MAINSTREAMING Disaster r isk r eduction IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND BUDGETING SYSTEM : CASE OF INDONESIA. National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia. Dr. Suprayoga Hadi ( suprayoga@bappenas.go.id )

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slide1

MAINSTREAMING Disasterrisk reduction IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND BUDGETING SYSTEM:CASE OF INDONESIA

National Development Planning Agency

Republic of Indonesia

Dr. Suprayoga Hadi (suprayoga@bappenas.go.id)

Director for Special Area and Disadvantaged Region, National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS), Republic of Indonesia

National Project Director of Safer Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction in Development (SCDRR), a cooperation between Government of Indonesia and UNDP

2nd Session of Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction

Geneva, Switzerland, 16-19June 2009

indonesia as a disaster prone country
Indonesia as a Disaster Prone Country
  • With Indonesia’s more than 18,000 islands along the Pacific “ring of fire” of active volcanoes and tectonic faults, the recent disaster is a reminder of the natural perils facing this expansive archipelago
  • Consist of approx. 224 million inhabitants, disproportionately distributed, comprises a mix ethnicities, community groups, religious denominations, customs and traditions
  • Flood and landslides also very common in the forest fringe areas in the rainy season with number of causalities and damaged settlements (N Sumatra, Kalimantan, Central and East Java, and Sulawesi)
  • Most of the main river banks are crowded with low-income squatter with high population density, increasing uncontrolled sedimentation
  • 383 out of 483 districts/cities are disaster prone areas, for the reason of high number of population, high density areas with unevenly population distribution, high income disparity, increasing percentage of building coverage at urban and settlement area, decreasing water and sanitation quality
  • Early warning system is not ready available and ready to lowering the risk and impact in the prone areas of disasters, such as earthquake, landslides, and drought
  • Implementation of spatial plan for land use management were somewhat inconsistent and contributed to the high risk of natural disaster .
  • The policy, legal or regulatory framework is not fully in place that makes disaster risk reduction a normal part of the decentralized, local level development process.
issues on natural disaster in indonesia
Issues on Natural Disaster in Indonesia
  • 130 Active volcanoes  potency to volcanic hazards
  • Recent Earthquake in Indonesia
    • Yogyakarta-Central Java, June 2006
    • Bengkulu-West Sumatera, September 2007
    • Gorontalo-Central Sulawesi, December 2008
    • West Papua, January 2009
  • Tsunami
  • Recent tsunami in Indonesia
  • Floods:
    • Natural Factor (topography, high tide, rainfall)
    • Man-made Factor (change in land use, squatter area in river banks,decrease in river capacities affected by the pile of garbage and lack of maintenance, increase of sedimentation rate, etc)
regulatory and institutional reform on drr and climate change
Regulatory and Institutional Reform on DRR and Climate Change

Law No 24 year 2007 on Disaster Management

Law No 26 year 2007 on Spatial Planning

Law No 27year 2007 on Small Islands and Coastal Management

Government Regulation (GR) No 21/2008 on DM Operations, GR No 22/2008 on Funding & Management of Disaster Assistance, GR No 23/2008 on Participation of International Institutions and Foreign Non-Government Institution in DM

GR No 26 / 2008 on National Spatial Planning

Presidential Regulation No 8 / 2008 on NDMA (BNPB)

Presidential Regulation Nr 46 / 2008 on National Council for Climate Change

Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No 46/2008 on BPBD Organization and Works Mechanism

Head of BNPB Regulation No 3/ 2008 on BPBD

Regulatory Framework

Institutional Framework

Establishment of BNPB

Establishment of BPBD in a number of provincial and district / city levels

Establishment on National Platform on DRR

Establishment of National Council for Climate Change

Establishment of Mitigation Forum (led by Min of Marine & Fisheries)

mainstreaming drr and climate change into development planning system
Mainstreaming DRR and Climate Change into Development Planning System
  • Long-term Development Planning (RPJP) 2005 – 2025:
  • RPJP 2005 – 2025 has identified CC as a critical challenge to Indonesia. Under the Development Direction: Terwujudnya Indonesia yang Asridan Lestari (Everlasting Indonesia), the Plan highlights the various disasters caused by extreme climatic events in Indonesia, including the recent floods and droughts that have brought about heavy losses to national economy
  • Mainstreaming CC and DRR into RPJMN 2005 – 2009 :
    • Natural Resources Protection and Conservation, with main activities including :
      • Review of policies on natural resource protection and conservation
      • Protection of natural resources against uncontrolled exploitation
      • Protection against forest fires
      • Management and protection of biodiversity against extinction, on land, coasts and sea.
      • Partnership building with universities, local communities, NGO and private sector for the protection and conservation of natural resources
      • Spatial planning and zoning for the protection of natural resources, especially in areas prone to tectonic earthquakes, tsunami, floods, drought and other hazards.
    • Program to Develop Capacity in Natural Resources and Environmental Management
    • Program to Improve Quality and Access of Information on Natural Resources and Environment
goi current policies on dm
GoI Current Policies on DM
  • Changing paradigm in DM:
  • National and Local Plan for DM
  • National and Local Action Plan for DRR
  • Funding Arrangement for DM:
  • - National Budget
  • - Local Budget
  • - Private sectors and/or community
  • - International Donors and NGOs
  • LAW on DM No. 24 / 2007
  • PP 21/2008 on
  • DM Arrangement
  • PP 22/2008 on DM Financing
  • PP 21/2008 on DM External Supports
  • Presidential Regulation (Perpres) No 8 / 2008 on the establishment of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB)
  • Ministry of Home Affairs Decree (Permendagri) No 46/2008 on the establishment of Local Disaster Management Board (BPBD)
integration of dm plan nap drr into dev t plan
Integration of DM Plan & NAP-DRR into Dev’t Plan

Long –term Development Plan (RPJP) 2005 - 2025

Initiative Rights from Councils

Involve multi stakeholders the preparation of the plan

Involve multi stakeholders in DRR activity

DM Law 24/2007

National Action Plan for DRR (NAP-DRR)

(2006 – 2009)

DM Plan 2010-2014 & NAP-DRR

2010-2012

Mid–term Development Plan (RPJM)2010- 2014

  • Government Annual Plans (RKPs)
  • 2007, 2008 & 2009
  • Government Annual Plans (RKPs)
  • 2010, 2011, etc
policies on drr financing
Policies on DRR Financing

PP 22/2008 on DM Financing

  • Funding Resources :
  • APBN (Nat’l budget)
  • APBD (local budget)
  • Community

Emergency Response

Pre-Disaster

Post Disaster

  • In situation of non-occurrence of disaster:
  • Facilitation of DM Planning formulation
  • DRR Programming
  • Disaster prevention programming
  • Integration of development planning with DM planning
  • Facilitation of implementation and enforcement of spatial planning
  • Formulation of DR Analysis
  • Implementation of DM Education and Training
  • Formulation of technical standards for DM
  • In situation of potential occurrence of disaster:
  • Preparedness activity
  • Development of Early Warning System
  • Disaster mitigation activities
slide11

Comprehensive Planning and Funding Arrangements for DRR in Indonesia

Preparedness / Risk Reduction

(Pre-disaster)

Mapping prone areas (earthquake, land sliding, flood, volcanoes, weather disaster)

Developing Early Warning System (EWS) in prone areas (including dissemination EWS to community)

Community awareness for disaster preparedness

Capacity building to institutions for disaster management (coordination & immediate response)

Responsible parties

Line Ministries/ Sectoral Budgets

slide12

Position of NAP-DRR within the Planning and Budgeting Process

Nat’l Sectoral Medium-term Plan

Sectoral Annual Work Plan

Sectoral Budgeting Plan

Detail of National Budget

Central

Government

NAP-DRR

Gov’t Annual Work Plan

National Long-term Plan

National Medium-term Plan

Annual Budget Plan

National Annual Budget

Prov/Local Long-term Plan

Prov/LocalMedium-term Plan

LG Annual Work Plan

Prov/Local Annual Budget Plan

Prov/Local Annual Budget

Provincial/Local

Government

LAP-DRR

Prov/Local Sectoral Med-term Plan

LG sectoral Annual Work Plan

Rprov/Local Sectoral Budget Plan

Detail of Prov/Local Budget

slide13

Framework on DM Planning Coordination

ANNUAL GOVERNMENT WORK PLAN

LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT PLAN

(RPJP – RTRW)

MID-TERM DEVELOPMENT PLAN

(RPJM – RPB)

SECTORAL STRATEGIC PLAN

DRR ACTION PLAN

RPJP NATIONAL

RPJM NATIONAL

RKP NATIONAL

RENSTRA K/L

NATIONAL

RENJA K/L

RTRW NATIONAL

NATIONAL DM PLAN

NAP DRR

RPJM

PROVINCE

RPJP PROVINCE

RKPD PROV

RENSTRA SKPD PROV

PROVINCIAL

RENJA SKPD PRO

LAP DRR PROV

RTRW PROVINCE

DM PLAN PROVINCE

RPJM

DISTRICT

RKPD CITY / DISTRICTT

RPJP DISTRICT/ CITY

RENSTRA SKPD K/K

DISTRICT

LAP DRR

CITY/ DISTRICT

RTRW DISTRICT / CITY

DM PLAN

DISTRICT / CITY

RENJA SKPD K/K

13

slide16

Disaster Management and DRR Financing in Indonesia 2007-2009

  • Based on the DM Law and Government Regulation No 22 / 2008, the DRR financing resources are from:
    • Government (National & Local)
    • Community / Private
    • Donors
  • The Government allocates the budget based on the RPJM and RKP (Government Annual Works Plan) as indicated on the previous slides.
  • The specific national budget for climate change was allocated in the RKP 2009 (in Priority no 2 – Focus 5), while in the past, the government activities targeting for CC were embedded into regular development programs with no specific national budget allocated to CC.
  • The Climate change financial scheme will apply the rules and procedures under UNFCCC and ODA financing mechanism, and aligns with GOI general financing policies.
  • For external funding, Indonesia prioritizes grant utilization to finance CC programming which is from bilateral or multilateral donors
slide18

Comparison of Program Proposal in the National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction Against Government Allocation 2007 - 2009

IDR. Million

Data compilation as per Feb. 2009

non government budget
Non Government Budget
  • Multilateral and Bilateral Loans/Grants on DRR in supporting:
  • 1. Institutional and Regulatory development at national and local levels;
  • 2. Revitalization of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Areas
  • 3. Conservation critical upstream watershed areas
  • 3. Poverty reduction programs
  • 4. Community Development Programs (livelihoods, settlement infrastructure program)
  • 5. Development and strengthening on Early Warning System (including strengthening multi sector and multi stakeholder coordination and cooperation within early warning chain)
  • 6. Infrastructure development (incl. regulation and building standards)
  • 7. Strengthening BMG on Climate and Weather Services Capacity
  • 8. DRR Education and Training Program
  • 9. Raising Public Awareness
slide20

Comparison of Program Proposal in the National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction Against Donor and NGO’s 2007 - 2009

IDR. Million

  • Note:
  • Data collection Jan - Feb 2009
  • Most of the programs are multi years. The budget allocation is recorded at the first year of the program
slide21

Donors Contribution to DM System

  • Pre-disaster phase:
    • strengthen local and national capacities, to effectively prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from disasters;
    • support and promote the effective implementation of legal and regulatory instruments for disaster risk reduction and disaster management and
    • support dialogue and coordination between agencies and institutions at all levels to prepare for effective disaster risk management.
  • During disaster
    • making use of disaster response capacities, and taking into account the responsibilities assigned under the ongoing humanitarian reform process and where national capacities are exceeded
    • support Government efforts to provide emergency humanitarian assistance to disaster affected populations
    • conduct needs assessments
    • share information and assist Government in coordination of the disaster response
  • Post-disaster phase
    • making use of pre-existing frameworks for cooperation, and taking into account the Millennium Development Goals and the Hyogo Framework for Action and support national efforts to help communities effectively recover from the impact of disaster and to promote sustainable development
lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • Shifting the paradigm mandated in the DM law No 24/2007 enhances the participation form non-government multi stakeholders, mainly international community and NGOs in the DM and DRR activities;
  • Indonesia experiences in recent disasters (Aceh & Yogya) implies to:
  • generate government in the acceleration of the finalization and implementation of DM and DRR regulatory and institutional frameworks;
  • enhance the awareness of people in the importance of DRR;
  • attract international communities in supporting government in the promoting DRR;
  • Commitment and support from international communities and donors significantly provide advocacy policy frameworks and generate the implementation of mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development, such as Program SCDRR supported by DFID and UNDP, GFDRR by the World Bank, AusAID, JICA etc.
challenges and way forward
CHALLENGES and WAY FORWARD
  • Develop the derivation from the DM Law in line with the mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development;
  • Integrate and synergize strategies adopted by each sectors into a holistic approach of DRR in the development;
  • Strengthen capacity of government institutions and apparatus in the DM and DRR aspects;
  • Improve public awareness through campaign, simulation drill, etc
  • Introduce DRR Sensitivity Planning Approach as the bottom up development planning and budgeting approach starting at village levels;
  • Formulate policy recommendation and strategy for the implementation of CBDRM, that currently implemented fragmentary by NGOs at sub-district and village levels;
  • Shift the international donors and community on the DRR implementation from ‘favorable areas’ (Aceh & Yogya) to other prone disaster areas;
  • Formulate sustainable tools to link from rehabilitation and reconstruction stage to DRR and mitigation efforts, as well as integrate DRR and Climate Change (NAP-DRR and NAPA).
thank you for further information please visit http bencana bappenas go id and http www sc drr org
Thank Youfor further information, please visit:http://bencana.bappenas.go.id and http://www.sc-drr.org