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GENDER MAINSTREAMING: THE ILO APPROACH. WHY? WHO ? HOW?. WHY ?. ILO Declaration of Philadelphia, 1944 “ Every human being, irrespective of race, creed, sex , or religion, has the right to pursue both his material well-being and spiritual development

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GENDER MAINSTREAMING:THE ILO APPROACH

  • WHY?

  • WHO ?

  • HOW?


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WHY ?

ILO Declaration of Philadelphia, 1944

“Every human being, irrespective of

race, creed, sex, or religion, has the

right to pursue both his material well-being and spiritual development

in conditions of freedom, dignity and equal opportunity...”


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WHY?

ILO DG Circular on Gender Equality and Mainstreaming, 1999“The ILO must now work to ensure that commitment to gender equality is internalized throughout the Organisation and reflected in all our technical work,operational activities, support services.”


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WHY?

TO WORK MORE PROFESSIONALLY


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WHO?

“The implementation of this gender equality and mainstreaming policy requires the unfailing commitment, participation and contribution of each staff member”

ILO Director- General Announcement No. 56417.12.1999


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WHO?

“ Every individual staff member *(should be)fully gender sensitized, trained in the use of specific gender techniques, motivated in pursuing gender equality as a main goal”

* Project Managers and Officers, Assistants, Support Staff, Directors…


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“Our” Gender Approach

International Labour Standards


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Applying gender methodologies to project/programme design

Gender sensitive implementation

Improving the institutional

knowledge-base

Measuring impact on women and men

Looking for gender disaggregated data

Focusingon basic principles


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HOW?

Learning how to use a set of appropriate tools


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Focusing on basic principles

Looking for gender-disaggregated data

Applying gender methodologies

Legal tools(international standards)

Statistical tools

Methodological tools

HOW?


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Gender sensitive implementation

Specific networks and contacts

Gender-sensitive reference materials(data, cases, training materials…)

HOW?

Improving the institutional knowledge –base



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GENDER MAINSTREAMING: best practices

  • Gender analysis/stakeholder analysis

  • Gender needs assessment

  • Gender planning

  • Gender-specific action

  • Capacity building on gender equality

  • Gender sensitive monitoring & evaluation

  • Relevant gender expertise

  • Adequate resources

  • Knowledge sharing on gender mainstreaming


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GENDER MAINSTREAMING

In July 1997, the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) defined the concept of gender mainstreaming as follows:

“Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in any area and at all levels.

It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as of men an integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated.

The ultimate goal of mainstreaming is to achieve gender equality.”

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GENDER MAINSTREAMING

IN PRACTICE

  • Within its technical cooperation programme, the ILO has piloted ways to promote gender mainstreaming through a two-pronged approach, including:

  • All projects/programmes should aim to systematically address the concerns of both women and men through gender analysis and planning.

  • Targeted interventions should be designed to enable women and men to participate equally in, and benefit equally from, development efforts.

Introduction

Introduction

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GENDER MAINSTREAMING

Introduction

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IN ILO TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROJECTS

As an applied strategy, gender mainstreaming in technical cooperation projects entails:

Involving both women and men beneficiaries in consultations and analysis;

Including sex-disaggregated data in the background analysis and justification;

Formulating gender-sensitive strategies and objectives, and corresponding gender-specific indicators, outputs and activities;

Striving for gender balance in the recruitment of project personnel and experts and in representation in institutional structures set up under the projects;

Including impact assessment on gender equality in evaluations as well as gender expertise in the evaluation team.


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Building Blocks of a

Gender Mainstreaming Strategy

Good practice elements:

  • Gender analysis/stakeholder analysis

  • Gender needs assessment

  • Gender planning

  • Gender-specific action

  • Capacity building on gender equality

  • Gender sensitive monitoring & evaluation

  • Relevant gender expertise

  • Adequate resources

  • Knowledge sharing on gender mainstreaming

Introduction

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Building Blocks

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GENDER ANALYSIS

  • Gender analysis can be undertaken at any stage during the project cycle, but it is proving most effective if included at the initial planning and design stages.

  • Gender analysis is a tool for identifying the different roles and needs of women and men in a given context and project setting.

  • In the world of work, a gender analysis includes looking at:

    • The division of labour between women and men;

    • The different needs of women and men in the world of work;

    • The sex-based division of access to, and control over, resources and benefits;

    • Opportunities and constraints in the social and economic environment;

    • The capacity of ILO constituents and other partner organisations to promote equality between women and men in employment.

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GENDER NEEDS ASSESSMENT

  • Gender needs assessment is closely linked to the concept of gender analysis: they are both valuable analytical tools for strengthening a project’s potential to meet the different needs and interests of women and men throughout the project cycle.

  • A gender needs assessment sheds light on both practicaland strategic gender needs:

    • Practical gender needs are needs that, once met, enable women and men to maintain their existing positions in society.

    • Strategic gender needs, on the other hand, once met, transform these positions and subsequently alter power relations between women and men.

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GENDER PLANNING

  • The findings of the gender analysis and needs assessment should be used to inform strategic planning of any project interventions.

  • Gender planning consists of developing a strategy which describes how gender equality will be promoted in project activities through specific measures and organisational arrangements such as:

    – Committing to balanced representation of women and men in project activities;

  • – Ensuring that adequate resources and expertise are available.

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GENDER-SPECIFIC ACTION

  • Gender-specific action can be defined as action which is adopted to redress gender-based inequalities and discrimination against women and/or men in a given context.

  • The ILO recognises that if historically entrenched discrimination against women in the world of work is to be tackled, specific action in favour of women could be required. Hence, the ILO promotes, when necessary, the use of gender-specific policy action to achieve such aims.

  •  During a project’s gender planning stage, it can be proposed that the project includes such action (directed at either women or men) to redress gender inequalities.

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CAPACITY BUILDING ON GENDER EQUALITY

  • Building capacity for gender mainstreaming amongst project staff and beneficiaries is essential for ensuring that gender analysis and planning are applied throughout the project cycle and used to inform project activities.

  • Capacity building could focus on:

  • – Clarifying key gender concepts;

  • – Understanding the process and role of gender analysis;

  • – Providing practical guidance on how to undertake gender planning for project and programme activities.

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GENDER-SENSITIVE MONITORING AND EVALUATION

  • Monitoring and evaluation are important processes for reviewing the extent to which projects are addressing key gender issues, including progress towards equal access to education, training and decent employment.

  • In order for monitoring and evaluation to be gender-sensitive, it is crucial that relevant gender-sensitive indicators are integrated into the project design and that they in turn are integrated into the monitoring and evaluation guidelines and terms of reference.

  •  The gender analysis and planning processes are key stages for developing gender-sensitive indicators.

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KNOWLEDGE SHARING ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING

  • Knowledge sharing is a process which begins by capturing and organising knowledge and experience, and then proceeds to make this knowledge accessible to a wider audience – thus cultivating new linkages between interested groups.

  •  “Good practices” and “lessons learnt” are valuable sources of knowledge, as they enable project staff to learn from the experiences of other projects and apply them in their own work.

  • Knowledge sharing of the different approaches used to promote gender equality in ILO’s technical cooperation activities allows the entire Organization to capitalise on those experiences.

Introduction

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RELEVANT GENDER EXPERTISE

  • The need to attract relevant gender expertise – in order to systematically implement the various elements of a strategy promoting gender equality – cuts across all of the above mentioned building blocks.

  • Establishing linkages with gender expertise can facilitate promotional and advocacy work on gender equality through project activities as well as technical support and advice to ILO staff and constituents on ways to mainstream gender into the project cycle and thus promote gender equality in the world of work.

  • The above approach can be very useful, especially when technical activities are centred on the promotion of the ILO’s key equality Conventions:

    • No. 100 on Equal Remuneration, 1951;

    • No. 111 on Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), 1958;

    • No. 156 on Workers with Family Responsibilities, 1981;

    • No. 183 on Maternity Protection Convention, 2000.

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ADEQUATE RESOURCES

Like gender expertise, sufficient resources are essential to implement the various building blocks of a mainstreaming strategy promoting gender equality.

This is not to say that gender mainstreaming will necessarily require vast amounts of resources, but rather an affirmation that the above elements require strategic commitment, in terms of human resources and budgets, in order to be implemented successfully.

Introduction

Overview

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SUMMARY:

Gender mainstreaming in the programming cycle

Knowledge sharing

Gender-analysis/

Needs assessment

Gender expertise

Adequate resources

(financial / Human)

Gender-sensitive monitoring/evaluation

Gender planning

Gender-specific action/ Capacity building

Introduction

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Building Blocks

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REFERENCES

This presentation is based on the publication:

Good Practices in Promoting Gender Equality in ILO Technical Cooperation Projects, published by the ILO Bureau for Gender Equality, 2007

To receive a copy of the publication and for more information on the cited projects, please contact the Bureau for Gender Equality, [email protected] or the Gender and Non-Discrimination Programme of ITC/ILO (Turin): [email protected]

Introduction

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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

Education, life expectancy, pro-capita income ---> Positive trendEconomic participation, political empowerment ---> Low, compared to other regions


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

Need for a better / more productive use of non-oil resources = human talents

both male and female


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

As an average: 1 employed person supports more than 2 non-working dependants

Highest ratio in the world


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

Large investments in educationbutLow return in economic participation

Higher female participation is supposed to be able to boost household earnings by 25%


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

Economic slowdown causes a preference for men in employment (“they are the breadwinners”)

Resource-rich countries have lower levels of female participation in the economy (in condition of unemployment men are hired first and foremost)


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

Culturally, public sectors jobs are considered more suitable for women.

If public sector shrinks = less female employment


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

Typical gender roles:

  • Focus on the family, not on the individual.

  • Man as a breadwinner

  • Modesty code for women limits interactions out of the family sphere

  • Family laws dictate unequal balance of power (in the household and in the society)


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Gender equality in the economy in the Middle East and North Africa:general trends

General biases to women participation in the labour market:

  • Tax and employment-related benefits geared towards men.

  • Women considered as less flexible (hours of work / mobility)


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A NEW GENDER AGENDA

  • Review of the legislative environment

  • Supportive infrastructure

  • Continued attention to education, + vocational training and life-long learning

  • Reform of labour regulations with a view to enhancing employment in the private sector


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A NEW GENDER AGENDA

In three group, critically discuss the hand-out (with particular reference to the last section “A new gender agenda”) and answer to the following questions:

a) Would the four proposed policy areas be applicable in your country?

  • Which other policies would enhance women’s participation in the economy?

  • Please identify indicators that could help policy makers in shaping and implementing these policies (both a) and b)).

  • Are there statistical sources to supply data for such indicators?


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