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IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA GRADE 12 HISTORY BY MANYANDO MULONDA MUNALI GIRLS HIGH SCHOOL DEFINITION OF IMPERIALISM The tendency by powerful countries to extend their power and control on to other countries Has been an ancient practice from the biblical times to present.

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imperialism in africa grade 12 history

IMPERIALISM IN AFRICAGRADE 12 HISTORY

BY MANYANDO MULONDA

MUNALI GIRLS HIGH SCHOOL

definition of imperialism
DEFINITION OF IMPERIALISM
  • The tendency by powerful countries to extend their power and control on to other countries
    • Has been an ancient practice from the biblical times to present.
    • Africa became affected by imperialism in the 19th century
why european powers expressed no interest in africa until 19 th century
WHY EUROPEAN POWERS EXPRESSED NO INTEREST IN AFRICA UNTIL 19TH CENTURY
  • Europeans considered Africa dark continent.
  • So many geographical barriers e.g. thick forests.
  • Tropical diseases such as Malaria.
  • Transportation difficulties e.g. couldn’t use horses due to Tse Tse flies.

Europeans were afraid of Malaria which is caused by mosquitoes

19 th century interest grew because
19TH CENTURY INTEREST GREW BECAUSE:
  • Scientific discoveries made it easy to live in Africa (see picture)
  • Explorations also made Africa known to the world
  • This led to the scramble for Africa

Cinchona tree. Scientists discovered quinine, the cure for Malaria from this tree.

the scramble for africa
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA.
  • This was the sudden rush for colonies in Africa by European countries in the second half of the 19th century.
  • Several factors contributed to the scramble for Africa as follows:
  • Economic factors,
  • Political reasons,
  • Humanitarian factors,
  • Other reasons,
humanitarian factors
HUMANITARIAN FACTORS
  • Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity
  • Missionaries wanted to end slave trade in Africa so they urged their governments to come to Africa
  • Missionaries wanted to educate Africans with simple skills in farming and literacy

Western style education was brought by missionaries.

economic factors
ECONOMIC FACTORS
  • Need for raw material such as minerals
  • Need for markets
  • Need for cheap source of labor
  • Over population in Europe
  • Need to invest surplus capital
  • Discovery of gold and diamonds in south Africa
  • They wanted to avoid paying tariffs in Europe

A typical mining operation. Most African countries were rich in minerals.

political reasons
POLITICAL REASONS
  • Prestige
  • Divert people’s attention away from problems they were facing in Europe
  • Settle criminals and other dissidents
  • Strategic reasons
other reasons
OTHER REASONS
  • Invitations by African chiefs e.g. Lewanika
  • Individual greed by men like Cecil Rhodes and King Leopold of Belgium
  • Wanted to try their new medicines and military strategies

Cecil Rhodes wanted to colonise Africa from Cape to Cairo.