five archeological sites more than 2,000 years old more than 1,200 acres total How well do you know Hopewell Culture?
Hopewell Culture Trivia Bee National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Hopewell Culture National Historical Park 16062 State Route 104 Chillicothe, Ohio 45601-8694 (740) 774-1126 Version 1.0 – March 2007
Click any number between 1 and 50 that has not been answered correctly already 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Notes Hopewell Culture Trivia Bee Replay Introduction
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Q1 Where did the Hopewell people get their name? From a type of flint they used to make spear points From a local farm where artifacts were discovered From evidence that they were optimistic and friendly
Yes. A1 The Hopewell are named for a farm once owned by Captain Mordecai Cloud Hopewell, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. A great many artifacts were excavated at Hopewell’s farm specifically for display at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1892. To this day, since they left behind no records or written language, we do not know by what name the Hopewell called themselves. Next Question?
Q2 What year did Mound City Group National Monument become Hopewell Culture National Historical Park? 1972 1982 1992
Yes. A2 Hopewell Culture NHP was established May 27, 1992 by a federal law that renamed Mound City Group National Monument, expanded the Hopeton Earthworks and authorized the acquisition of three additional sites – High Bank Works, Hopewell Mound Group and Seip Earthworks. Next Question?
Q3 What kinds of tools did the Hopewell use to build mounds? Baskets, shells and sticks Shovels, horses and carts Heavy ropes and pulleys
Yes. A3 The Hopewell made their monumental earthworks entirely by hand with only a few small tools that they also designed and made by hand. They did not have shovels, horses or carts outfitted with wheels to make their work any easier or more efficient for them. Next Question?
Q4 According to one oral tradition, which indigenous group built the mounds? Delaware Lenni Lenape Alligewi
Yes. A4 The tradition of the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware, states that their true origins were in the west and that when they traveled east across the Mississippi they vanquished a mighty people who had been the builders of the great mounds. This group, known as the Alligewi, or Tallidewi, gave their name to what we call the Allegheny River. Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question?
Q5 What’s the biggest political distinction between Hopewell earthworks and the monuments of Egypt? Egyptians monuments were built by slave labor Hopewell children could earn the right to vote The pyramids weren’t accessible to common people
Yes. A5 All of the effort that went into constructing the earthworks of the Middle Woodland period appears to have been provided at the consent of its people. “Although the Hopewell probably had leaders of some considerable power and influence there is no evidence, such as consistent patterns in burial practices, that their leaders inherited political power after the manner of kings or pharaohs.” Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question?
Q6 What year did it become an official violation of park rules to walk on top of the earthworks at Mound City? 1956 1986 2006
Yes. A6 Superintendent Ken Apschnikat issued a first compendium of orders for the park in 1986. The mounds and earth walls were closed to foot traffic to prevent erosion. Recreational pursuits were restricted to reduce potential for accidents, to avoid disturbances and “to preserve the dignity of a prehistoric burial area.” Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question?
Q7 Of the five separate archeological sites preserved as part of this national park, which is the oldest? Hopewell Mound Group Mound City Group Seip Earthworks
Yes. A7 Based on published radiocarbon dates or artifact typology, the order and approximate age of the park’s five archeological sites are – Mound City Group (2,200-1,750 BP) Hopewell Mound Group (2,100-1,600 BP) High Bank Works (2,050-1,700 BP) Hopeton Works (2,000-1,850 BP) Seip Earthworks (1,800-1,600 BP) Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures byBradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question?
Q8 What modern agricultural staple was tremendously rare in Hopewell gardens? Beans Tobacco Corn
Yes. A8 Corn, or maize, was originally a wild Mexican grass that came to fuel the great civilizations of Mesoamerica. It was only very rarely cultivated in Hopewell gardens, however. One theory, known as the “Maize Debate,” suggests that the transition to a sedentary, corn-based agricultural society may have signaled the end of the Hopewell era. Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question?
Q9 What’s a Hopewell “Interaction Sphere?” A technical name for their version of a soccer ball A secluded, sacred space for religious rituals A region within which ideas or objects are exchanged
Yes. A9 Interaction spheres exist when independent societies exchange goods or information. For the Hopewell, it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains and the Upper Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. They’re not merely “trade networks” since little evidence of exchanged crafts or materials from Ohio have been discovered in these distant places. Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures, by Bradley T. Lepper(Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question?
Q10 In 1990, this park had the dubious distinction of being the very last in America to do what? Remove human remains from public display Adopt EPA pesticide control measures Commemorate veterans of World War I
Yes. A10 Human ashes that had been exhibited in a cremation pit display in the park museum were replaced in 1990 with clean sand. Six years later, in 1996, the park closed a separate exhibit known as the “Mica Grave.” First constructed in 1965, this building had allowed visitors to view artifacts and objects inside Mound #13 just beyond the entrance to the mound area. Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question?
Q11 How many years ago did hunters and explorers first begin to settle this part of eastern North America? 2,500 11,500 6,500
Yes. A11a While the Hopewell lived 2,000 years ago, the area was first settled almost 10,000 years earlier – “Ohio, in particular, must have been a Paleoindian paradise. It was rich country during the closing phases of the Ice Age. The environment was a mosaic of different kinds of forest and prairie, with a smorgasbord of resources from upland groves of nut trees to wetlands filled with waterfowl … Continued
A11b “ … In addition to deer and beaver, there also were herds of caribou and musk oxen, mastodons, mammoths and giant ground sloths, as well as predators such as the saber-tooth cat, the short face bear, wolves and mountain lions.” Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures byBradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question?
Q12 What was the Hopewell’s best hunting tool? Bow & arrow A spear-throwing device called “Atlatl” Deadly poison brewed from native plants
Yes. A12a Since they lived many centuries before the local advent of the bow and arrow, the Hopewell used the spear and atlatl, pronounced at-ul-at-ul, a name derived from the Aztecs of Central America. Functioning as an extension of the thrower's arm, much like a flexing catapult, the device propels a spear in an overhand or side motion with far greater force. … Continued
A12b The oldest atlatls in the world date back more than 25,000 years to northwest Africa. Immigrants from Siberia likely brought the atlatl to North America about 12,000 years ago. Next Question?
Q13 How many different times was this park targeted for “disestablishment” while it was known as Mound City Group National Monument? 2 3 4
Yes. A13 Prior to its expansion and name change in 1992, the park survived four separate efforts to “disestablish” it either to help streamline the larger agency or due to a perceived lack of significance. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes actually approved a transfer of ownership to the state in 1937. Ultimately, all four attempts were stopped by opposition of citizens and local elected officials. Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question?
Q14 How many artifacts and documents are conserved in the park’s repository? 1,480 14,800 148,000
Q15 How much more energy, adjusted by weight, does it take a mammal to run the same distance a bird can fly? 3 times 5 times 10 times
Yes. A15 This might be one reason why mammals – with the notable exceptions of caribou, bats and gray whales – aren’t known to migrate as often or as far as other creatures. Source:Life in the Cold: An Introduction to Winter Ecology by Peter J. Marchand (University Press of New England, 1987) Next Question?
Q16 What’s that green stuff on some of the artifacts in the park museum? Curator’s preservative Decaying decorative paint Natural oxidation
A16 Yes. The green patina on copper objects is due to oxidation of the metal. Salts from the aging copper have preserved traces of woven fabric, animal skin, feathers and plant fibers, offering clues to ways that some of the objects were used. Next Question?
Q17 Which science specifically studies evidence of past human activity? Archeology Paleontology Dendrochronology
Yes. A17 Paleontology is a study of fossils, including the relics of dinosaurs. Dendrochronology is the study of tree rings to date past events. Archeology explores and describes human cultures by what they leave behind. Next Question?
Q18 How many bones make up a complete human skeleton? 206 260 602
Q19 What proof do we have that the Hopewell possessed advanced design and surveying skills? They left behind elaborate drawings and blueprints Sites built miles apart share alignments & dimensions By accounts passed down through other cultures
Yes. A19a Of all the geometric enclosures the Hopewell built, only two feature circles joined to octagons. One, known as High Bank Works, is preserved as a site within this national park outside Chillicothe. Its “sister site,” now known as Octagon State Memorial, is located in Newark, Ohio. The alignments of these two large monuments are oriented precisely perpendicular to each other even though they are more than 50 miles apart. Continued
A19b The dimensions of the two circles are identical and match that of yet a third site in Circleville, Ohio which once featured two vast concentric earthworks. The size of the outer concentric circle at Circleville also happens to be the same as a structure at the Newark complex known as the “Great Circle.” Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question?
Q20 In 2006, how many recreation visits were recorded for all national parks? 72,000,000 272,000,000 727,000,000
Yes. A20a Overall, there were just over 272 million visits to all parks in 2006, about the same as 2005. The top 10 visited units were: 1) Blue Ridge Parkway; 2) Golden Gate NRA; 3) Great Smoky Mountains NP; 4) Gateway NRA; 5) Lake Mead NRA; 6) George Washington MP; 7) Natchez Trace Parkway; 8) Delaware Water Gap NRA; 9) Cape Cod NS; 10) Grand Canyon NP. Continued
A20b All told, with 15,000 permanent and 5,000 seasonal workers, the NPS manages more than 80 million acres of land in 49 states, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands. Source: Public Use Statistics Office, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Next Question?
Q21 What’s a beamer? A bone tool used to scrape hides A structural element in buildings A hunting club used to dispatch prey