National Culture. Management Scientists are Humans Greet Hofstede , Management Science, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 1994, pp. 4-13. Outline. Why Culture and Management? Hofstede ’ s Method The Four Dimensions Later Refinements Trompenaars (1996) ’ s seven dimensions.
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Management Scientists are Humans
Greet Hofstede, Management Science, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 1994, pp. 4-13.
In other words, there is only ONE dimension called “agewealth” that captures most of the information about both.
The red lines indicate the errors that using one dimension brings about. The longer the sum of these lines, the less well one dimension captures these two dimensionsAge+Wealth=ONE Dimension
Malaysia 104 Austria 11
Guatemala 95 Israel 13
Panama 95 Denmark 18
Philippines 94 New Zealand 22
Mexico 81 Ireland 28
Arab Countries 80 UK 35
How a culture handles assertiveness vs. modesty (US=62; Japan=95)
Japan 95 Sweden 5
Austria 79 Norway 8
Venezuela 73 Netherlands 14
Italy 70 Denmark 16
Switzerland 70 Costa Rica 21
Mexico 69 Yugoslavia 21
How a culture handles the individual vs. the group (US=91; Japan=46)
USA 91 Guatemala 6
Australia 90 Equador 8
UK 89 Panama 11
Canada 80 Venezuela 12
Netherlands 80 Colombia 13
New Zealand 79 Indonesia 14
Israel SE Asia, Latin America
Singapore, Jamaica Latin Europe, Latin America
Nordic Countries Japan
Latin America, SE Asia UK, US
basically, how a culture treats future (how long in the future).
Currently Hofstede’s four (or five) dimensions are the basis for almost all organizational and national business cultural studies.