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Foreign Direct Investment. Foreign Direct Investment. Why is FDI increasing in the world economy? Why do firms often prefer FDI to other market entry strategies? Why do firms imitate competitors with FDI strategies? Why are certain locations favored for FDI?

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foreign direct investment1
Foreign Direct Investment
  • Why is FDI increasing in the world economy?
  • Why do firms often prefer FDI to other market entry strategies?
  • Why do firms imitate competitors with FDI strategies?
  • Why are certain locations favored for FDI?
  • How does political ideology affect government FDI policy?
  • What are key FDI related costs and benefits for receiving and source countries?
foreign direct investment2
Foreign Direct Investment
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI): a firm invests directly in foreign facilities
  • A firm that engages in FDI becomes a multinational enterprise (MNE)
    • Multinational = “more than one country”
  • Factors which influence FDI are related to factors that stimulate trade
foreign direct investment3
Foreign Direct Investment
  • Involves ownership of entity abroad for
    • production
    • Marketing/service
    • R&D
    • Access of raw materials or other resource
  • Parent has direct managerial control
    • Depending on its extent of ownership and
    • On other contractual terms of the FDI
  • No managerial involvement = portfolio investment
fdi growth in the world economy
FDI Growth in the World Economy
  • FDI Outflow: $35 billion in ‘75 to $1.3 trillion in ‘00 to $653 billion in ‘03
  • FDI Flow (from all countries): from ‘92 to ‘02 up 292%, compared to trade up 69% and world output up 28%
  • FDI Stock: $3.5 trillion by ‘97 to > $7 trillion in ‘02
  • In ‘02:
    • 64,000 MNEs had:
      • 850,000 foreign affiliates
      • 53 million employees
      • $17.7 trillion in sales
    • $8 trillions global exports
  • Conclusion: FDI flow growing faster than world trade and world output
direction and source of fdi
Direction and Source of FDI
  • Most FDI flow has been to developed countries from developed countries
    • Much to the US from EU, Japan
  • FDI increase to developing countries since ‘85
    • Much to the emerging Asian and Latin America economies
    • Africa lagging
forms of fdi
Forms of FDI
  • FDI forms
    • Purchase of assets: why? why not?
      • Quick entry, local market know-how, local financing may be possible, eliminate competitor, buying problems
    • New investment: why? why not?
      • No local entity is available for sale, local financial incentives, no inherited problems, long lead time to generation of sales
    • International joint-venture
      • Shared ownership with local and/or other non-local partner
      • Shared risk
alternative modes of market entry
Alternative Modes of Market Entry
  • FDI
    • FDI - 100% ownership
    • FDI < 100% ownership, International Joint Venture
  • Strategic Alliances (non-equity)
  • Franchising
  • Licensing
  • Exports: Direct vs Indirect
why fdi
Why FDI?
  • FDI over exporting
    • High transportation costs, trade barriers
  • FDI over licensing or franchising
    • Need to retain strategic control
    • Need to protect technological know-how
    • Capabilities not suitable for licensing/franchising
  • Follow few main competitors
    • Immediate strategic responses
pattern of fdi explanations
Pattern of FDI Explanations
  • International product life-cycle (Ray Vernon)
    • Trade theory similarity
  • Eclectic paradigm of FDI (John Dunning)
    • Combines ownership specific, location specific, and internalization specific advantages
    • Explains FDI decision over a decision to enter through licensing or exports
eclectic paradigm of fdi dunning
Eclectic Paradigm of FDI (Dunning)
  • Ownership advantage: creates a monopolistic advantage to be used in markets abroad
    • Unique ownership advantage protected through ownership
    • e.g., Brand, technology, economies of scale, management know-how
  • Location advantage: the FDI destination market must offer factors (land, capital, know-how, cost/quality of labor, economies of scale) that are advantageous for the firm to locate its investment there (link to trade theory)
  • Internalization advantage: transaction costs of an arms-length relationship --licensing, exports-- higher than managing the activity within the MNC’s boundaries
government policy and fdi
Government Policy and FDI
  • The radical view: inbound FDI harmful; MNEs
    • Are imperialist dominators
    • Exploit host to the advantage of home country
    • Extract profits from host country; give nothing back
    • Keep LDCs backward and dependent for investment, technology and jobs
  • The free market view: FDI should be encouraged
    • Adam Smith, Ricardo, et al: international production should be distributed per national comparative advantage
    • An MNE increases the world economy efficiency
      • Brings to bear unique ownership advantages
      • Adds to local economy’s comparative advantages
host country effects of fdi
Host Country Effects of FDI
  • Benefits
    • Resource -transfer
    • Employment
    • Balance-of-payment (BOP)
      • Import substitution
      • Source of export increase
  • Costs
    • Adverse effects on the BOP
      • Capital inflow followed by capital outflow + profits
      • Production input importation
    • Threat to national sovereignty and autonomy
      • Loss of economic independence
government policy and fdi1
Government Policy and FDI
  • Home country
    • Outward FDI encouragement
      • Risk reduction policies (financing, insurance, tax incentives)
    • Outward FDI restrictions
      • National security, BOP
  • Host country
    • Inward FDI encouragement
      • Investment incentives
      • Job creation incentives
    • Inward FDI restrictions
      • Ownership extent restrictions (national security; local nationals can safeguard host country’s interests
decision framework for fdi

Are transportation costs high?

Yes

Is know-how easy to license?

Yes

Tight control over foreign ops required?

No

Is know-how valuable and is protection possible?

Decision Framework for FDI

Import Barriers?

No

No

Export

Yes

No

FDI

Yes

FDI

Yes

FDI

No

License