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Computers Chapter 4 Inside the Computer © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 2 Computers Inside the Computer Digital signals: Data is represented by a stream of bits. Bit – short for b inary dig it (either 0 or 1) 1 represents on 0 represents off © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 6

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computers

Computers

Chapter 4

Inside the Computer

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 2

computers inside the computer

ComputersInside the Computer

Digital signals: Data is represented by a stream of bits.

Bit – short for binary digit (either 0 or 1)

1 represents on

0 represents off

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 6

computers inside the computer3

ComputersInside the Computer

The Language of Computers

Encoding systems

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ANSI – American National Standards Institute

UNICODE – capable of handling most printed languages

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 7

computers inside the computer4

ComputersInside the Computer

Digital: The Language of Computers

Byte – collection of bits that represent a character

ASCII – 7 bits/byte

ANSI – 8 bits/byte

UNICODE – 16 bits/byte

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 8

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ComputersInside the Computer

The PC System Unit

Connected to the Motherboard:

Processor

Chipset

Memory chips

Expansion boards

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 11

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ComputersInside the Computer

The PC System Unit

Motherboard

System bus – permits communication between components

Device controllers – control peripheral devices

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 12

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ComputersInside the Computer

The PC System Unit

The Processor: Computer on a Chip

Pentium 4

Celeron

XeonTM

ItaniumTM

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 13

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ComputersInside the Computer

CPU Speed: GHz, MIPS, and FLOPS

Gigahertz (GHz) – billions of clock cycles per second (Instructions)

Megahertz (MHz) – millions of clock cycles per second (Instructions)

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 39

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ComputersInside the Computer

CPU Speed: GHz, MIPS, and FLOPS

MIPS – millions of instructions per second

FLOPS – floating point operations per second; used to measure speed of supercomputers

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 40

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ComputersInside the Computer

RAM: (Temporary Memory)

High-speed holding area for data and programs

Volatile memory – data is lost if electrical current is not maintained

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 18

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ComputersInside the Computer

RAM: (Temporary Memory)

DDR SDRAM – synchronous dynamic RAM

SIMMs – single in-line memory modules

DIMMs – dual in-line memory modules

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 19

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ComputersInside the Computer

Cache

Cache Memory – faster than RAM

Housed on (L1) or near (L2) the CPU

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 20

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ComputersInside the Computer

Other High-Speed Memories

ROM (read-only memory) – contains instructions to the computer that the user cannot change

PROM (programmable ROM) – user can store read-only programs and data

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 21

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ComputersInside the Computer

Other High-Speed Memories

Flash Memory

Nonvolatile memory – does not lose data in a power outage

Easily upgraded

BIOS (Basic Input Output System) – stored in flash memory

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 22

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ComputersInside the Computer

Memory Capacity

MB (megabyte) – approximately 1 million bytes

GB (gigabyte) – approximately 1 billion bytes

TB (terabyte) – approximately 1 trillion bytes

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 42

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ComputersInside the Computer

Memory Capacity

KB (kilobytes) – approximately 1000 bytes

Kb (kilobit)

Mb (megabit)

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 43

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

PCI (peripheral component interconnect) local bus – allows for circuit boards to connect to the common system bus

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 27

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

Expansion slots – where expansion boards are installed

Expansion boards or expansion cards – provide additional capabilities to the computer

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 28

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

AGP (accelerated graphics port) bus– speeds up high-resolution 3-D graphics

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 29

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

USB (universal serial bus) – used to connect peripheral devices to the PC

USB hub – connects to the USB port and provides additional places to plug USB devices

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 30

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

Hot plug – USB devices can be attached or removed while the PC is running

USB 2.0 – about 40 times faster than original USB

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 31

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

1394 bus – similar to USB in speed

FireWire – Apple terminology

Supports hot plugging

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 32

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ComputersInside the Computer

Buses and Ports

SCSI (small computer system interface) or “scuzzy” bus – early alternative to expansion slots in PCs

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 33

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ComputersInside the Computer

Legacy and Other PC Ports

Serial port – data flows one bit at a time

Parallel port – data flows several bits at a time

IrDA port or infrared port – data sent by light waves

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 34

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ComputersInside the Computer

Bus Speed

Most buses operate at MHz

Major block to efficiency in a PC

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 41

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ComputersInside the Computer

PC Growth: Adding Capabilities

Expansion Boards – placed in expansion slots

Graphics adapter

Sound

Data/voice/fax modem

Network interface card (NIC)

SCSI interface card

Video capture card

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 35

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ComputersInside the Computer

PC Cards: PCMCIA Technology

PCMCIA card or PC card

Usually used on notebook computers

Expand RAM

NIC

Hard-disk cards

GPS (global positioning system)

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 36

computers chapter 5
ComputersChapter 5
  • Storage Devices: (Permanente Storage) measured in Mega Bytes (MB), or Gaga Bytes (GB)
    • Hard Drive
    • Floppy Disc
    • CD-ROM
    • DVD-ROM
    • CD-R (Recordable)
    • CD-RW (Rewritable)
    • DVD-R, DVD+R
    • DVD-RW, DVD+RW
    • DVD+,-RW
computers inside the computer29

ComputersInside the Computer

Build Your Own PC

Advantages

Cheaper (for high-end systems)

Meets your requirements

Disadvantages

No warranty on system

No help desk

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Slide 37