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Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements. 2.1 Elements and Symbols 2.2 Periodic Table. Elements. Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 112 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium.

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Chapter 2 atoms and elements l.jpg
Chapter 2Atoms and Elements

2.1 Elements and Symbols

2.2 Periodic Table

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Elements l.jpg
Elements

  • Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes

  • Are the building blocks of matter

  • 112 elements known today

    Examples: carbon

    gold

    calcium

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Symbols of elements l.jpg
Symbols of Elements

  • Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations

  • Capitalize the first letter only

    Examples:

    C carbon Co cobalt

    N nitrogen Ca calcium

    F fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Symbols from latin names l.jpg
Symbols from Latin Names

Element Symbol Latin name

Copper Cu cuprum

Gold Au aurum

Lead Pb plumbum

Mercury Hg hydrargyrum

Potassium K kalium

Silver Ag argentum

Sodium Na natrium

Tin Sn stannum

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Major elements in the body l.jpg
% Major Elements in the Body

O 65.0 % K 0.34

C 18.0 S 0.26

H 10.0 Na 0.14

N 3.0 Cl 0.14

Ca 1.4 Fe 0.004

P 1.0 Zn 0.003

Mg 0.50

Trace Elements

As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning check l.jpg
Learning Check

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

1) C 2) Ca 3) CA

B. Sulfur

1) S 2) Sl 3) Su

C. Iron

1) Ir 2) FE 3) Fe

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution l.jpg
Solution

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

2) Ca

B. Sulfur

1) S

C. Iron

3) Fe

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning check8 l.jpg
Learning Check

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickel

B. P

1) potassium 2) phogiston 3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver 2) agean 3) gold

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution9 l.jpg
Solution

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

2) nitrogen

B. P

3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Periodic table l.jpg
Periodic Table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Physical properties l.jpg
Physical Properties

The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.

  • Color

  • Size

  • Shape

  • Density

  • Freezing and Boiling Points

  • Odor

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Groups of elements l.jpg
Groups of Elements

  • Vertical columns on the periodic table

  • Similar physical properties

  • Similar chemical properties

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Groups on the periodic table l.jpg
Groups on the Periodic Table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Representative groups l.jpg
Representative Groups

  • Group 1 Alkali Metals

  • Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Group 7 Halogens

  • Group 8 Noble Gases

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Location of some groups l.jpg
Location of Some Groups

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A

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k e

a t

l a

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s

A

l

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a

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i

n

e

H

a

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o

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I G

n a

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r e

t s

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Periods on the periodic table l.jpg
Periods on the Periodic Table

  • Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.

  • Numbered 1, 2, 3, ….

  • Include representative elements and transition elements

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Periods on the periodic table17 l.jpg
Periods on the Periodic Table

1

2

3

4

5

6

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4

1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution19 l.jpg
Solution

A. Element in Group 7A, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3

2) magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning check20 l.jpg
Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution21 l.jpg
Solution

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

2) magnesium

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

2) N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Metals and nonmetals l.jpg
Metals and Nonmetals

Metals

  • Located to the left of the heavy line

  • Shiny, ductile

  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

    Nonmetals

  • Located to the right of the heavy line

  • Dull and brittle

  • Poor conductors, good insulators

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Metals and nonmetals23 l.jpg
Metals and Nonmetals

Transition metals

NONMETALS

METALS

METALS

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning check24 l.jpg
Learning Check

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulfur ____

B. chlorine ____

C. sodium ____

D. iron ____

E. carbon ____

F. silver ____

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution25 l.jpg
Solution

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulfur 2

B. chlorine 2

C. sodium 1

D. iron 1

E. carbon 2

F. silver 1

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning check26 l.jpg
Learning Check

Select the correct elements:

A. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

2) C, Si

3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

B. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi

2) N, P, As

3) N, P, As, Sb

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution27 l.jpg
Solution

A. Metals in Group 4A

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

B. Nonmetals in Group 5A

2) N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake