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Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements. Elements and Symbols Periodic Table. Elements. Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 112 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium.

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chapter 2 atoms and elements
Chapter 2Atoms and Elements

Elements and Symbols

Periodic Table

LecturePLUS Timberlake

elements
Elements
  • Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes
  • Are the building blocks of matter
  • 112 elements known today

Examples: carbon

gold

calcium

LecturePLUS Timberlake

symbols of elements
Symbols of Elements
  • Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations
  • Capitalize the first letter only

Examples:

C carbon Co cobalt

N nitrogen Ca calcium

F fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake

symbols from latin names
Symbols from Latin Names

Element Symbol Latin name

Copper Cu cuprum

Gold Au aurum

Lead Pb plumbum

Mercury Hg hydrargyrum

Potassium K kalium

Silver Ag argentum

Sodium Na natrium

Tim Sn stannum

LecturePLUS Timberlake

major elements in the body
% Major Elements in the Body

O 65.0 % K 0.34

C 18.0 S 0.26

H 10.0 Na 0.14

N 3.0 Cl 0.14

Ca 1.4 Fe 0.004

P 1.0 Zn 0.003

Mg 0.50

Trace Elements

As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V

LecturePLUS Timberlake

names and symbols of elements
Names and Symbols of Elements

Be sure to learn the names and symbols of the elements in Table 2.2 page 48 plus the names and symbols of Bi, Cr, Mn, Pt, Se, U

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check e1
Learning Check E1

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

1) C 2) Ca 3) CA

B. Sulfur

1) S 2) Sl 3) Su

C. Iron

1) Ir 2) FE 3) Fe

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution e1
Solution E1

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

2) Ca

B. Sulfur

1) S

C. Iron

3) Fe

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check e2
Learning Check E2

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickel

B. P

1) potassium 2) phogiston 3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver 2) agean 3) gold

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution e2
Solution E2

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

2) nitrogen

B. P

3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver

LecturePLUS Timberlake

worksheet
Worksheet
  • Complete the worksheet labeled:

Elemental Symbols

  • When finished, compare your work with other students from your class.

LecturePLUS Timberlake

periodic table
Periodic Table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.

LecturePLUS Timberlake

physical properties
Physical Properties

The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.

  • Color
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Density
  • Freezing and Boiling Points
  • Odor

LecturePLUS Timberlake

groups of elements
Groups of Elements
  • Vertical columns on the periodic table
  • Similar physical properties
  • Similar chemical properties

LecturePLUS Timberlake

groups on the periodic table
Groups on the Periodic Table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

LecturePLUS Timberlake

representative groups
Representative Groups
  • Group 1 Alkali Metals
  • Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Group 7 Halogens
  • Group 8 Noble Gases

LecturePLUS Timberlake

location of some groups
Location of Some Groups

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A

l m

k e

a t

l a

i l

s

A

l

k

a

l

i

n

e

H

a

l

o

g

e

n

s

I G

n a

e s

r e

t s

LecturePLUS Timberlake

periods on the periodic table
Periods on the Periodic Table
  • Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.
  • Numbered 1, 2, 3, ….
  • Include representative elements and transition elements

LecturePLUS Timberlake

periods on the periodic table19
Periods on the Periodic Table

1

2

3

4

5

6

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check e3
Learning Check E3

A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4

1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution e3
Solution E3

A. Element in Group 7A, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3

2) magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check e4
Learning Check E4

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution e4
Solution E4

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

2) magnesium

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

2) N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake

metals and nonmetals
Metals and Nonmetals

Metals

  • Located to the left of the heavy line
  • Shiny, ductile
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

Nonmetals

  • Located to the right of the heavy line
  • Dull and brittle
  • Poor conductors, good insulators

LecturePLUS Timberlake

metals and nonmetals25
Metals and Nonmetals

Transition metals

NONMETALS

METALS

METALS

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check e5
Learning Check E5

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulfur ____

B. chlorine ____

C. sodium ____

D. iron ____

E. carbon ____

F. silver ____

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution e5
Solution E5

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulfur __2__

B. chlorine __2__

C. sodium __1__

D. iron __1__

E. carbon __2__

F. silver __1__

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check e6
Learning Check E6

Select the correct elements:

A. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

2) C, Si

3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

B. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi

2) N, P, As

3) N, P, As, Sb

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution e6
Solution E6

A. Metals in Group 4A

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

B. Nonmetals in Group 5A

2) N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake