206AR-WEEKs 3&4&5ARCHITECTURE:AESTHETICS VOCABULARY & LISTENING & SPEAKING
PREVIEW KEY WORDS CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Aesthetics(n): Word Formation: aesthetic(adj), aesthetically(adv) Definition : the branch of philosophy dealing with beauty and taste (emphasizing the evaluative criteria that are applied to art) Synonyms: artistic taste, philosophy of art Antonym: N/A Ex:Buddhist monks developed signal skill in this branch of aesthetics, and nothing could exceed the delightful harmony which they achieved between nature and art.
Emphasis (n.): Definition : special importance or significance, intensity or forcefulness of expression Synonyms : significance, highlight, priority Antonym: insignificance, unimportance Collocations : place emphasis on give emphasis Ex: The president’s proposal places heaviest emphasis on driving technologies calculated to produce economic benefits.
Extraordinary (adj ): Definition : Highly unusual, exceptional or remarkable.Something extraordinary goes above and beyond what is expected. This can be good or bad. Synonyms : exceptional, surprising, uncommon Antonym: common, familiar, normal Ex:Saving a child from a burning building is an extraordinary act of heroism.
Origins ( n ): Definition : the place where something begins, where it springs into being, the first stage of existance. Synonyms : root, source, basis Ex:The origin of yoga was India since that’a where the practice began Ex:The origin of the strawberries in the market is Mexico, since they were grown there.
Ornamentation (n): Word Formation : ornament (n), ornamental(adj) Definition : The act of adding extraneous decorations to something. Shortly, it refers to materials or features used for decorations. Synonyms : decoration, elaboration Ex:Swim wear with exposed zippers and metal ornamentation will not be permitted in the swimming contest.
Plaster (n): Definition : a mixture of lime or gypsum with sand and water; hardens into a smooth solid; used to cover walls and ceilings Synonyms : cement Ex:Clay plaster on two walls adds a delicate contrast to concrete and redwood elements
Scale (n): Word Formation : Definition :the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it. Synonyms : range, rate, system Ex:Despite their scale, each of the jets had come and gone within less than half a second.
Surround(v): Word Formation : surrounding(adj), surrounded(adj) Definition : extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle Synonyms : circle, border Antonym: release Ex:The forest surrounds my property Ex:I’m surrounded by buildings in a fairyland and I see people wearing masks all over the city.
Unfamiliar(adj ): Word Formation : Definition : not known or well known Synonyms : unusual, different, strange Antonym: familiar, known, usual Ex:Film directorsaid viewers unfamiliar with 19th-century American history needed to be given some context.
Varied (adj): Word Formation : vary (v) Definition : show diversity, be different Synonyms : diverse, various,different Antonym: same, similar Ex:Scholars say that the boats were first used hundreds of years earlier for varied reasons.
PREVIEW PREVIEWING THE ACADEMIC CONTENT CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Buildings surround us and are an important part of our lives. • People have strong ideas about them. • For example, many say that modern architecture is boring and ugly and that the buildings of the past were far more attractive. • Others claim that modern buildings are far more varied and interesting than what was previously possible.
In this unit, we will explore, from an architectural viewpoint, some ideas about what makes a building a good building, with an emphasis on aesthetics.
Look at the pictures of these three buildings. Then discuss the questions.
Look at the pictures of the three buildings. Then discuss the questions. • Which of these buildings have you seen pictures of or heard about? • What do you know about these buildings? • What do you like about each of the buildings? What do you dislike?
4) Overall, do you think these buildings are attractive? For each, circle a number on the scale from one to six to express your opinion. Explain your opinion.
PREVIEW PREVIEWING THE ACADEMIC SKILLS FOCUS CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Paraphrasing: The First Step to Summarizing • Paraphrasing is expressing other people’s ideas in your own words. • This is an essential skill in English language academic context because it is not permissible to present another person’s ideas as your own or to copy another person’s words. • A paraphrase is usually about the same length as the original spoken or written source, while a summary is always shorter than the original source. • This is a key distinction between a paraphrase and a summary.
Paraphrasing: The First Step to Summarizing • It is helpful to know paraphrasing techniques before you learn how to summarize. Here are a few techniques; • Use synonyms for the key words in a sentence. • Change the form of the key words in a sentence(change nouns to verbs, verbs to adjectives, adjectives to nouns, and so on) • Change the structure of a sentence( change the organization of the clauses) • Change the voice of a sentence(from active to passive,or passive to active)
1&2 • Read the excerpt from an architecture textbook. • As you read, pay attention to the main ideas. • Read three summaries of the excerpt. • In the chart, check the features that each summary has.
BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS KEY WORDS CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Affectionate(adj): Definition: having or displaying warmth or affection. Being affectionate is being warm, tender, and loving. A hug is an affectionate gesture. Synonym: tender, warm ,loving Antonym: cold, cool, disliking Ex: I grew up in a family with an affectionate but complicated relationship with ice cream.
Brick(n): Definition: rectangular block of baked clay; used as a building or paving material. Synonyms: cinder block, cube, stone Ex: "I feel like hitting my head against a brick wall," he says. Ex: Some people like to see players run through brick walls all the time.
Cathedral(n): Definition: the principal Christian church building of a bishop's diocese. Any large and important church. Synonyms: holy place, temple Ex: Later, there was an informal memorial gathering in the grounds in front of the cathedral.
Concrete(n): Definition: a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water. Ex: It made sense to do a concrete bookcase since books are so heavy. Ex: Sidewalks, foundations, and highways are all made ofconcrete.
Curve(n): Definition: A continously bending line, without angles. Synonyms: round, circle, bending Antonym: line Ex: He had a kind of curve in his spine and should have been operated as soon as possible. CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Elegant(adj): Definition: refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style. Synonyms: effective,nice, stylish Antonyms: ugly, unfashionable Ex: David Orozco, an artist and stay-at-home father, developed anelegant, boxy framework.
Generate(v): Definition: bring into existence, give or supply. Synonyms: produce, create, set up Antonyms: break, destroy Ex: Europe and the United States nonetheless continue to generate the most food waste.
Rectangle(n): Definition: A rectangle is any shape with four sides and four right angles. Synonyms: square, figure Ex: In the last few years, consumer electronics have started to share one characteristic, no matter who makes them: they're all rectangles.
Reinforced(adj): Definition: When something is reinforced, it is stronger or more supported than before. Synonyms: supported, strengthened Antonyms: Backless, weak Ex: Cultivating an ecosystem wasreinforced by knowledge sharing, network building, and uplifting anecdotes.
Repetition(n): Definition: the act of doing or performing again and again. Synonyms: echo, practice, exercise Ex: Improvements can only come with repetition and muscle memory.
Serene(adj) Definition: describe someone who is calm and untroubled. Synonyms: calm, comfortable, cool Antonyms: excited, troubled Ex: The prime minister has also seemed serene about the country’s position.
Texture(n): Definition: the feel of a surface or a fabric. Synonyms: framework, structure Ex: They are based on geometric forms, but both sculptors’ work have the same rough texture,” Mr. Marks said.
Temple(n): Definition: A building where people go to Worship, for example in the Jewish, Hindu, Mormon religion. Synonyms: cathedral, church Ex: The temples were once the heart of village life, serving as meeting places, guesthouses and community centers.
BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS BEFORE YOU LISTEN CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
1. • Work in small groups. • Look at the photographs and information about the buildings that the professor will discuss in the lecture. • Then read the Claim to Fame statements. • These statements describe features of the buildings that made them famous. • Decide which building each Claim to Fame statements describes. • Write the statement in the correct places in the chart.
1. ANSWERS MLC Centre: D Sydney Opera House: B Chrysler Building: E Taj Mahal: F Durham Cathedral: C Todai-ji: A
2. • Read the key words on this page and on the next page. • Decide which relate to a form, material, or type of building, and which is an adjective that describes a building. • Organize the word in the chart.
3. • Work with a partner. • What is your emotional response to the buildings you discussed in exercise 1? • Which adjectives would you choose to describe each of the buildings? • Use the adjectives from the chart in Exercise 2 and add some of your own. • Discuss your choices. Do you agree with each other’s choice?
BUILDING ACADEMIC LISTENING SKILLS GLOBAL LISTENING CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Distinguishing Major from Minor Points and Essential from Non-essential Information • Major points are main ideas and supporting details that are necessary for understanding-the essential information.These include evidence and explanations. • Minor points are additional details or information that add interest to the lecture but are not necessary for understanding-non-essential information. These often include examples.
Distinguishing Major from Minor Points and Essential from Non-essential Information How can you identify main ideas? • Think about the focus of the lecture beforehand. The major points will support the focus. • Listen carefully to the introduction. The thesis will state the main point or opinion of the lecture, and the scope will give the main ideas to be covered. • Listen for logical connectives and certain phrases that often introduce main ideas and supporting details, for example: Let’s begin with..... Most importantly......
Distinguishing Major from Minor Points and Essential from Non-essential Information • Sometimes a lecturer also gives emphasis to a point after saying it. • Notice that in the following sentences, this and that refer to the previous idea. • I believe this is a key point. • I think that goes a long wayto explaining why.....
Distinguishing Major from Minor Points and Essential from Non-essential Information • Pay attention to how the lecturer is talking about major points and ideas that the lecturer emphasizes-perhaps by speaking more slowly, more clearly, more loudly, or more quietly. • As a check, ask yourself these questions: • Is this information important for me to understand the purpose of the lecture? • Is it an important detail that supports the main idea?
1. • Professors often post course notes on their websites. • Look at the overview of the lecture you will listen to. • Work in pairs. • Think of at least 3 questions that you think may be answered in the lecture. • Write them on the next page of your book.