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Chapter 2. Understanding Health-Related Fitness. Cardiovascular Fitness. Objectives: Define cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, & flexibility Explain benefits of regular physical activity Explain the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and heart disease

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Understanding Health-Related Fitness

cardiovascular fitness
Cardiovascular Fitness


  • Define cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, & flexibility
  • Explain benefits of regular physical activity
  • Explain the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and heart disease
  • Identify FITT formula components
  • Identify the benefits of resistance training
  • Identify the benefits of flexibility
  • Describe the components of a workout and the importance of each
  • Identify when the environment is not safe to exercise
physical activity recommendations
Physical Activity Recommendations
  • _____________ (1996) recommends ___ minutes of activity on most, if not all, days of the week.
  • _____________ (2002) recommends a total of __ minutes of moderately intense physical activity daily.
  • _____________ (2005) recommends __ minutes and up to __ minutes of daily activity to maintain weight loss.
recommendations for children
Recommendations for Children
  • ___________________ (2003) recommends at least __ minutes, and up to several hours of physical activity per day
health related fitness
Health Related Fitness
  • C
  • Muscular Strength
  • M
  • Flexibility
  • B
skill related fitness
Skill Related Fitness
  • Agility
  • B
  • Coordination
  • R
  • Speed
  • P
cardiovascular terms
Cardiovascular Terms
  • Cardiovascular fitness: the ability of the heart, lungs, circulatory system, and energy supply system to perform at optimum levels for extended period of times
  • Cardiovascular endurance: the ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity
  • Aerobic:
cardiovascular fitness8
Cardiovascular Fitness
  • O
  • By moderately increasing daily activity, significant health benefits can be achieved
  • Additional benefits can be gained from greater amounts of physical activity
benefits of cardiovascular activity
Benefits of Cardiovascular Activity
  • ___________ the risk of heart disease & stroke
  • Decreases resting heart rate
  • __________ stroke volume
  • Decreases blood pressure
  • Increases collateral circulation
  • __________ percent body fat
  • Increases the strength of connective tissue
additional benefits
Additional Benefits
  • Reduces mental anxiety & depression
  • Increases cognitive abilities
  • Improves sleep patterns
  • Decreases signs of the aging process
  • Improves stress management
cardiovascular system the heart
Cardiovascular System – The Heart
  • The heart becomes stronger with exercise
    • Increased stroke volume
    • Decreased resting heart rate
fitt formula frequency
FITT Formula –Frequency
  • Number of exercise sessions per week
  • Recommendations according to the ACSM:
    • To improve fitness, 3-5 times per week
  • If weight loss is your goal, exercise at least 30 minutes for five days each week
fitt formula intensity
FITT Formula –Intensity
  • How hard one is working
  • Measured by
    • Exercising heart rate
    • RPE
    • Talk test
exercising heart rate
Exercising Heart Rate
  • Target Heart Rate (THR): intensity of training necessary to achieve cardiovascular improvements
  • Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)

MHR = ___ - age

  • THR zone
    • 55-90% of MHR
    • 50-85% of HRR
fitt formula time
FITT Formula –Time
  • Length or duration of the exercise session
  • ______ minutes of continuous or intermittent activity is needed to achieve benefits
  • Intensity and Time are interdependent
fitt formula type
FITT Formula –Type
  • Mode of exercise
  • It must fulfill the requirements for intensity and duration
  • Examples: running, walking, swimming, biking, step aerobics, some sports
principles of fitness training
Principles of Fitness Training
  • Overload & Adaptation
  • Specificity
  • Individual Differences
  • Reversibility
principle of overload adaptation
Principle of Overload & Adaptation
  • Must stress body beyond normal levels
  • Body adapts to new load
  • Plateau occurs
  • Overload applied again for additional gains
  • Applies to cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility
principle of specificity
Principle of Specificity
  • Training for a particular activity, or isolating a specific muscle group and/or movement pattern one would like to improve
  • Isolating a specific muscle group
  • Workouts must be specific to goals
  • Modify intensity, duration, and mode
  • Is cross-training necessary???
principle of individual differences
Principle ofIndividual Differences
  • Individuals will respond differently to the same training protocol
  • Different responses due to:
    • Different fitness levels at beginning of training
    • Genetic composition
    • Age
    • Gender
principle of reversibility
Principle of Reversibility
  • The process of losing benefits with cessation of activity
  • Process applies to:
    • Cardiovascular Fitness
    • Muscular strength & endurance
    • Flexibility
  • Physiological changes will begin within two weeks of detraining and continue for months
a complete physical activity program
A Complete Physical Activity Program
  • 3 principle components: _______ exercise, _______________ exercise, and __________ training
  • Consistency is more important than the intensity
  • Aerobic training: ___ days/week (at least __ min.)
  • Strength training: ___ days/week (___ upper body and lower body exercises)
  • Stretch everyday (hold each stretch a minimum of __ seconds)
what is muscular fitness
What is muscular fitness?
  • Muscular strength: the force or tension a muscle or muscle group can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort
  • Muscular endurance: the ability or capacity of a muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a load, or to sustain a contraction for an extended period of time
  • According to the 1998 ACSM position stand:
    • ___ days per week
    • ___ muscle groups
    • ___ sets
    • ___ repetitions
benefits of muscular fitness quality of life
Benefits of Muscular Fitness – Quality of Life
  • An _________ in muscular strength, power, and endurance
  • ________ percentage of muscle mass
  • Improved posture
  • __________ metabolic rate
  • Improved ease of movement
  • __________ resistance to muscle fatigue
  • __________ strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones
  • __________ risk of low back pain
  • __________ energy and vitality
effective training
Effective Training
  • Frequency
  • Load
  • Repetition
  • Set
  • Recovery
  • Repetition-maximum
  • Intensity
training for best results
Training for Best Results
  • Prescription for developing muscular strength is more intense than for endurance
  • Repetitions decrease from 8 to 1
  • Number of sets increase from 3 to 5
  • Intensity level increases to 80 to 100 percent
  • The rest period lasts 3-5 minutes
muscle soreness
Muscle Soreness
  • Acute muscle soreness
  • Delayed-onset muscle soreness
  • Prevention of DOMS
    • Maintain an appropriate training program
    • Reduce the eccentric component
    • Gradually increase the intensity
    • Vitamin E
signs of over training
Signs of Over-training
  • _________ in physical performance
  • Weight loss
  • _________ in muscle soreness
  • Increase in resting heart rate
  • Sleeplessness
  • Nausea after a workout
  • Constant fatigue
  • _________ interest in exercise
weight training myths
Weight Training Myths
  • Weight-training causes one to lose flexibility
  • Resistance training or “spot reducing” is beneficial in reducing deposits of fat from specific areas on the body
  • Fat will be converted to muscle with resistance training
  • Dietary supplements will make one bigger and stronger
  • Performance –enhancing drugs such as steroids, growth hormones, diuretics, and metabolism boosters will help make one fit
  • Women will become masculine in appearance by participating in resistance training activities
  • Kids should not weight train
  • The range of motion in any particular joint
  • Influencing factors:
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Genetic composition
    • Activity level
    • Muscle core temperature
    • Previous or current injury
flexibility cont
Flexibility cont…
  • Benefits:
    • The ability to perform daily activities without developing muscle strains or tears and
    • The ability to participate in sports with enhanced performance
  • Functional Strength
    • Being able to apply your strength to a particular activity
exercise considerations
Exercise Considerations
  • Injuries
    • Injury prevention requires proper technique, equipment, shoes, and clothing
    • Weight bearing vs. Non-weight bearing activities
    • Common injuries: sprains, strains, and other musculoskeletal problems
    • PAIN is a signal that something is WRONG!!!!
    • RICE most injuries
considerations cont
Considerations cont…
  • Proper Footwear
    • Sport specific shoes are highly recommended
    • Cross trainers vs. Running shoes
considerations cont38
Considerations cont…
  • Environment Conditions
    • Cold weather exercise – layer clothes and pick fabrics that wick away moisture from the body
    • Warm weather exercise – acclimate to the heat and humidity
considerations cont39
Considerations cont…
  • Guidelines for exercising in the heat:
    • Stay hydrated with cool water
    • Dress appropriately in clothes that can wick moisture away from the body
    • Limit exposure time
    • Exercise with a buddy, or let someone know your plan and stick to it
    • Wear sunglasses for eye protection
considerations cont40
Considerations cont…
  • Exercise during the coolest time of the day, if possible
  • Stop activity if you experience nausea, dizziness, or extreme headache
  • Monitor your heart rate, staying within your target heart rate zone
  • Check the heat index to make sure it is safe to exercise
considerations cont41
Considerations cont…
  • What is the first sign of dehydration?
  • Pre-hydrate - drink before thirst occurs and before exercising
  • Standard recommendation is eight 8 oz glasses of water a day
    • This amount should be increased with exercise
    • Drink before, during, and after aerobic exercise
considerations cont42
Considerations cont…
  • Electrolyte levels should be carefully maintained – rehydrate with a sport drink if an activity lasts 60-90 minutes or longer
  • Hyponatremia (a.k.a., water intoxication) is caused by over-hydration.
    • Characterized by low sodium concentration in the blood
    • It can be life threatening
considerations cont43
Considerations cont…
  • Illness
    • If you have cold symptoms with no fever, then possibility a light workout might make you feel better
    • Mild to moderate exercise has been shown to enhance the immune system, and to reduce risk of respirator infections
considerations cont44
Considerations cont…
  • Other common sense concerns when exercising:
    • Lightening
    • Air pollution
    • Allergens
    • Night exercise
nutrition concerns
Nutrition Concerns
  • Eating should take place at least two hours prior to exercise for maximum comfort
  • Fuel your body with low fat and high carbohydrate foods
the biggest risk to exercise is not starting
The Biggest Risk to Exercise is Not Starting
  • It is never too early or too late to start
  • Make a plan and write it down
  • Get a workout buddy