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Covalent Bonding Lewis Structures. Bonding with Nonmetals. When no metal is present to donate electrons, nonmetals can share electrons to fill their valence shells. F. F. Bonding with Nonmetals. Each atom donates an un-paired electron to be shared in the covalent bond. F. F.

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bonding with nonmetals
Bonding with Nonmetals

When no metal is present to donate electrons, nonmetals can share electrons to fill their valence shells.

F

F

bonding with nonmetals1
Bonding with Nonmetals

Each atom donates an un-paired electron to be shared in the covalent bond.

F

F

Both atoms have access to this new pair of atoms some of the time.

multiple covalent bonds
Multiple Covalent Bonds

For atoms with more than one unpaired valence electron, multiple covalent bonds between the two atoms can form.

O

S

Two atoms can form single, double, or triple covalent bonds.

multiple covalent bonds1
Multiple Covalent Bonds

Each bond represents a pair of electrons, one from each atom being bonded.

H

H

N

N

S

S

More bonds will bring the atoms closer together and the bond will be stronger (more energy required to break it).

lewis structures
Lewis Structures

Lewis structures show the atom symbols, covalent bonds, and unbonded electronsfor covalent molecules.

Cl

Cl

drawing lewis structures
Drawing Lewis Structures

1) Count the total number of valence electrons in all atoms in the molecule.

CO2

C: 4

O: 6 x 2 = 12

12 + 4 = 16 total val. e-

drawing lewis structures1
Drawing Lewis Structures

2) The least electronegative, non-hydrogen atom is placed in the center and the other atoms are written surrounding it.

O

C

O

drawing lewis structures2
Drawing Lewis Structures

3) Draw single covalent bonds connecting the central atom to each outside atom.

(subtract used electrons from total)

O

C

O

16

- 4

12

drawing lewis structures3
Drawing Lewis Structures

4) Add electrons to fill outside atom valence shells.

(substract used electrons from total)

O

C

O

12

- 12

0

drawing lewis structures4
Drawing Lewis Structures

5) Check to make sure the central atom has a full octet. If not, shift pairs from outer electrons into bonds.

O

C

O

lewis structure practice
Lewis Structure Practice

1) Draw a Lewis structure for NH3.

H

N

H

H

lewis structure practice1
Lewis Structure Practice

2) True or False: The image below is the correct Lewis structure for PF3.

F

P

F

F

lewis structure practice2
Lewis Structure Practice
  • 3) Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following molecules:
    • SiO2
    • H2O
    • CH2F2
    • C2H4
naming molecules
Naming Molecules

Simple covalent molecules are named in the style of ionic compounds (cation then modified anion) based on relative electronegativity values.

CO

NF

SO

HBr

naming molecules2
Naming Molecules

Since multiple possible element ratios exist, we add prefixes to the element names to indicate the subscripts.

CO2

H2O

NO3

The prefix “mono” is only used for the more electronegative (second) atom.

naming practice
Naming Practice

Name the following covalent molecules:

SiO2

NO4

N2S3

P3O7

CO3