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Chapter 41
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  1. Chapter 41 Rearranging America: FDR and the New Deal 1933–1938

  2. The Pleasant Man Who Changed America • Franklin D. Roosevelt • Reputation as nice, but “light” • Pampered, sheltered life • From rich New York Family • Charming socialite? • Natural leader • Loved by many, hated by others • Roosevelt’s contribution • Confidence gives hope in depression • Decisive, declares bank holiday first day in office • “Second-class intellect” • Attracts talented advisors; flexible

  3. Man Who Changed America (cont.’d) • Eleanor Roosevelt • Unhappy marriage • Roosevelt’s top advisor • Champion of “forgotten” • Pushes Roosevelt to do more • Persuaded black voters to support FDR • Mary McLeod Bethune

  4. The Hundred Days • Crisis of 1933 demands action • During first 100 days of FDR’s presidency, Congress passes major legislation • Emergency Banking Act • Farm Credit Administration • Home Owners’ Loan Corporation

  5. The Hundred Days(cont.’d) • Federal Emergency Relief Administration • Social worker Harry Hopkins heads FERA • Hopkins dislikes handouts • Believes handouts justified in 1933 crisis • Civilian Conservation Corps • Provides army-type jobs to young men • Corps does environmental projects • CCC provides basics; wages go home

  6. The Hundred Days(cont.’d) • Civil Works Administration • Puts 4 million to work • CWA halted due to high costs • Works progress Administration • broadens CWA scope • Hires writers, actors, photographers, artists, etc. • NRA • Relief programs successful, but recovery needed • National Recovery Administration’s recovery measure • Each industry adopts code • Section 7(a) protects labor’s right to unionize • Critics say NRA goes too far with codes • Americans lose enthusiasm for NRA

  7. New Deal – Failures and Successes • Supreme Court • Schecter brothers file suit against NRA • Supreme Court throws out NRA • Little fuss over loss of NRA • Wagner Act replaces Section 7(a) • Agricultural Adjustment Act • AAA subsidizes farmers to produce less • AAA has success at driving prices up • Congress replaces AAA with new program • Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act • New program uses same principles as AAA • New Dealers worried Court will throw out TVA, REA

  8. Failures and Successes (cont.’d) • Tennessee Valley Authority • Constructed dams • Provide flood control, electrification in Appalachia • Brainchild of senator George Norris • Model of economic and social planning • Creeping socialism • Critics think TVA expensive and socialistic • Businessmen form American Liberty League to oppose FDR • Roosevelt asks to “pack” Supreme Court • Congress, public say no • Court mellows, New Deal safe in Court

  9. Populist Spellbinders • Father Coughlin • Wanted monetary system overhauled • Anti-Semitic • Dr. Francis Townsend wanted pensions for elderly • Huey Long wanted to “Share the Wealth” • Threatened to form third party • Roosevelt feared Long would split Democratic vote • Roosevelt decided to co-opt competition • Passed Social Security Act; revised income tax • Roosevelt won in 1936 in landslide against Alf Landon

  10. The Legacy of the New Deal • 1933: New Deal for everyone • 1935: New Deal more for lower classes • New Deal major period of significance • Blacks become Democrats • At first Roosevelt silent on black issues • Eleanor demands he listen to black leaders • Blacks benefit from New Deal programs • Blacks switch allegiance to Democrats

  11. Legacy of the New Deal (cont.’d) • Growth of unions • Roosevelt weds labor to Democrats • Militant unionists required FDR’s support for votes • Unions grow rapidly due to Wagner Act • More bosses accept unions • Labor war • Some bosses still resist unions • Memorial Day Massacre, 1937 • Henry Ford resists United Automobile Workers • Battles continue in Harlan County, Kentucky

  12. Legacy of the New Deal (cont.’d) • Bottom line • 1937 FDR tries to cut back on spending, economy worsens • Only war preparations end depression • Government plays new role in people’s lives • Government bigger than ever • Political revolution • Democrats join Southern whites, liberals, blue-collar workers, blacks • Some resistance from Southern Democrats • Democrats become majority party for 50 years

  13. Discussion Questions • What was FDR’s approach to dealing with the Depression? How well did he get changes implemented within his first hundred days in office? • Examine the PWA, CCC, TVA, and NRA. What were the purposes of each program? Which was most successful? • How well did the New Deal do in ending the Great Depression? Why? • What is the legacy of the New Deal? How did it politically change the U.S.? Are aspects and parts of it still with us today?