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Chapter 41

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  1. Chapter 41 America Confronts the Post–Cold War Era, 1992–2011

  2. APUSH ‘themes’ (B.A.G.P.I.P.E.) B = Belief Systems (ideas, ideologies, culture) A= American in the World (global context) G= Geography & Environment P= Peopling (movement & migration) I= Identity (gender, class, race, ethnic) P= Politics & Power E= Economy (work, trade, technology)

  3. I. Bill Clinton: The First Baby-Boomer President • 1992 presidential race • Democrats – Bill Clinton • Clinton claimed to be a “new” Democrat • Republicans-George HW Bush • Continue “social issues”, family values” • Independent candidate Perot • Election results (55% voter turn out) • Clinton 44 mil - Bush 39 mil - Perot 19 mil • Electoral count 370 Clinton; 168 Bush; 0 Perot • Democrats won majorities in both houses

  4. p966

  5. Map 41-1 p966

  6. II. A False Start for Reform • Gays & lesbians in the military • Settled for a Don’t Ask, Don’t’ Tell” policy • Health-care reform • Hillary Rodham Clinton’s proposal failed • Deficit reduction bill 1993 • By 2000 budget surpluses • Antigovernment mood persisted / grew • OklahomaCitybombing

  7. p967

  8. III. The Politics of Distrust • Republicans and the Contract with America • Newt Gingrich led • Republicans gained control of both houses (1994) • Government shutdown (1995) • People blamed Gingrich & Reps • Welfare Reform Bill (1996) • Made deep cuts in welfare grants • Election campaign of 1996 • Clinton’s 47,401,898-Dole’s 39,198,482- Perot 8,085,285 • Clinton won 379 electoral votes and Dole 159

  9. p968

  10. IV. Clinton Again • Second term, Clinton’s modest legislative goals • Affirmative action: “mend it, not end it” • Clinton’s advantage was the roaring economy • Longest period of growth, low unemployment • Trade agreement controversies • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • World Trade Organization (WTO) • Critics railed against “globalization”

  11. p969

  12. V. Problems Abroad • Clinton no policy to replace anticommunism • Clinton continues China trade policy • Tormented Balkans back treaty • US led NATO troops, Dayton Peace Accords • Clinton as an international peacemaker • Middle East, Northern Ireland, N & S Korean • India and Pakistan (nuclear rivals)

  13. Before1991 After1995

  14. VI. Scandal and Impeachment • Whitewater • Real estate deal in Arkansas (no indictment) • The Lewinsky affair • Clinton had sexual affair with an intern (Lewinsky) • Lied under oath about this affair • House passed articles of impeachment • Senate found Clinton not guilty

  15. p970

  16. p971

  17. VII. Clinton’s Legacy and the 2000 Election • Clinton’s legacy was mixed • Economic success, “New Democrat” social policies • Personal conduct increased political cynicism • Election 2000 • Democrat, Albert Gore • Republican challenger, George W. Bush • Election results • Florida’s electoral votes determined the winner • 5 week political standoff over counting votes Florida • Supreme Court 5-4 to stop recount • Bush electoral count 271 to 266 for Gore • Popular vote Gore: 50,999,897 to 50,456,002 for Bush

  18. p972

  19. Map 41-4 p973

  20. VIII. Bush Begins • Bush as president • Limited ‘stem cell’ research • Repudiated Kyoto Treaty • OKd new oil exploration in Alaska • Got passed a $1.3 trillion tax cut • 9/11, Afghan War, Iraq War • Wide public support • Deficit reached more than $400 billion in 2004

  21. Figure 41-1 p974

  22. IX. Terrorism Comes to America • September 11, 2001, America attacked • NYC’s World Trade Center, Pentagon, 4th plane • Bush’s response – Afghan War • ID Osama bin Laden, head of Al Qaeda • American/Afghan rebel forces overthrew the Taliban • USA Patriot Act (Oct 2001) • Department of Homeland Security (2002) • Guantanamo Detention Camp (Cuba) • Isolated prisoners, legal limbo

  23. p974

  24. p975

  25. p976

  26. X. Bush Takes the Offensive Against Iraq • Iraq, Iran, and North Korea an “axis of evil” • Nuclear desires hurt American security • Congress Okd the use of force • UN Weapons inspectors hindered by Iraq • US & Britain invade Iraq (2003) • Iraq fell a month later • Saddam Hussein found (2004) & executed (2006)

  27. Map 41-5 p977

  28. XI. Owning Iraq • Post-Saddam Iraq- anarchy & violence • U.S. decides to disband the Iraqi army • US Troops faced three threats • Shia-Sunni ethnic violence (civil war?) • Counter-occupation insurgency • Jihadist terrorism (Al Qaeda related) • Iraq elections and new constitution in 2005 • Last US Combat troops leave – Dec 2011

  29. p977

  30. p980

  31. p978

  32. XII. Reelecting George W. Bush • Republicans select Bush for reelection • Tax cuts, good economy, conservative social values • Championed No Child Left Behind Act (2002) • Democrats Chose John Kerry • Pushed progressive visions of government • Decorated Vietnam Vet (war experience) • Election results: • Popular vote - Bush 60,639,281 to 57,355,978 • Electoral College, Bush 286 to Kerry 252

  33. XIII. Bush’s Second Term • Bush more aggressive domestic agenda • Appointed 2 conservative SCOTUS justices • Proposed radical privatize Social Security plan • Scandals • VP Cheney convicted of perjury • Illegal wiretap surveillance • Hurricane Katrina: (late August 2005)

  34. p982

  35. Table 41-1 p981

  36. XIV. Midterm Elections of 2006 • Democrats regained both houses of Congress • Nancy Pelosi first woman Speaker of the House • Biggest factor - the war in Iraq • WMD, Al Qaeda, 9/11 connections all false • Death toll, Iraqi & American alike, continued to rise • 2007 surge brought measured stability to Iraq • 2008 Public opinion solidified against the war • President Bush’s approval ratings sank to~ 30%