Education Policies and Implementation in Pakistan Presented By :Farrukh Nazir
Education policy • Education policy is the principles and government policy-making in educational sphere, as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.(wikipedia2013). • Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through many institutions. • Examples include early childhood education, kindergarten through to 12th grade, two and four year colleges or universities, graduate and professional education, adult education and job training. • Therefore, education policy can directly affect the education people engage in at all ages.
Goals of Education Policy 1. Improve the academic success of all students by strengthening standards-based reforms, including assessments and accountability measures. 2. Establish and maintain a statewide education finance system based upon principles of adequacy, equity, accountability and predictability. 3. Build effective educational capacity to support learning by all students, with special emphasis on the need to ensure a qualified teacher in every classroom at all times.
Goals of Education Policy 4. Ensure that all every school shall have school leaders who will promote and support high achievement for all students through effective instructional leadership, school management and governance. 5. Enact state policies that shall ensure that every young child in the state shall have access to high-quality early education programs including pre-school and full-day kindergarten. 6. Ensure that all citizens of all ages shall have practical financial and physical access to a rich range of post-secondary educational opportunities.
Education in Pakistan at the time of Independence • Pakistan achieved independence from over a century of British colonial rule in August 1947. • The regions comprising Pakistan were relatively backward in all respects, including in education.
Education Policies in Pakistan • National Education Conference: 1947 • The New Education Policy: 1970 • The Education Policy: 1972-80 • National Education Policy and Implementation Programme: 1979 • National Education Policy: 1992 • National Education Policy: 1998-2010
National Education Conference: 1947 • First attempts in the field of education and literacy was the national education conference in1947. • The Quaid-e-Azam, in his message to the conferences said: "The importance of education and the type of education cannot be over-emphasized there is no doubt that the future of our state will and must greatly depend upon the type of education we give to our children, and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan ... we should not forget that we have to compete with the world which is moving very fast in this direction."
National Education Conference: 1947 • The first National Education Conference was held in 1947. • The Chairman the Conference set up following Sub-Committees to come up with the recommending guidelines in each sector: a) Scientific Research and Technical Education Committee b) Adult Education Committee c) University Education Committee d) Primary and Secondary Education Committee e) University Education and Primary and Secondary Education f) Women’s Education Committee
National Education Conference: 1947 g) Committee for scheduled caste and backward classes education. h) Cultural Relations Committee. i) Joint meeting of the committees on the university. education, scientific research and technical education and cultural contacts. j) Joint meeting of the committees on University Education, Women’s Education and Primary and Secondary Education.(Education in Pakistan UNESCO 2007) • The reports of various committees were submitted for finalization on 29th November, 1947. • The report was shared in November, 1947.
Main issues focused in the deliberation of the conference • Committee dwelt on the problems and constraints facing the task and identified issues of training adult school teachers, teaching materials and literature for adult schools, instruction methodologies, etc. • Committee cautioned against attempting to draw up a code or prescribe uniform methods applicable to the country as a whole and, instead, called for a committee of experts report on questions of teaching technique and results of experimentation. • Committee also advised against drawing any rigid distinction between adult education in the strict sense and technical, commercial or art instruction and suggested that adult students may be provided literacy through subjects of a vocational character.
Recommendations • The report recommended the following stages for the execution of a programme of adult education. • The first 5 years were to be devoted to planning, recruitment of teachers and training. • In the sixth year, about 500,000 persons were to be made literate with an annual increase of 300,000 thereafter. • Committee acknowledged that illiteracy was not confined to the rural areas and a large proportion of the urban population was also illiterate.
Recommendations • Committee called on all government departments and all employers and trade unions to ensure that their employees, workers, and members are literate. • The question of levying a tax on those employers who do not make adequate provision for the education of their employees was also presented for consideration. • the possibility of making a period of social service obligatory on all university students and • The use of mechanical aids to learning, such as radio, cinema, the gramophone, and magic lantern. • The report was shared in November, 1947.
Implementation • This policy could not be implemented properly due to increased number of immigrants and other administrative problems of new born country. • So more or less British colonial system was continued.
The Ne w Education Policy: 1970 • The President announced that Government would lay greater emphasis on the social sectors and would attach high priority to the educational problem. • A set of proposals of a new education policy were formulated. • In the light of public comments, the original proposals were reviewed. • The Cabinet considered the revised proposals and appointed a committee to examine them in detail. • The revised proposals were reviewed by the committee of the Cabinet in the light of implications of the announcement by the President in his address to the nation on November 28, 1969. • The new Education Policy was finally adopted by the Cabinet on March 26, 1970.
Salient features This policy has following salient features: • Emphasis on ideological orientation. • Emphasis on science and technology education. • Decentralization of educational administration. • The Policy aimed at free and universal enrolment up to Class V by 1980, with particular stress on girl’s education. • Policy also identified that there were about 100 million illiterates in Pakistan of whom 90 percent are concentrated in the rural areas. • Policy innovated further to aim at covering 5 million adults and school leavers by 1975 through requiring all employers, including government, to provide work-oriented basic education to all of their employees. • Establishment of a National Education Corps.(Kaiser Bengali 1999)
Implementation • The policy was never implemented on account of the war with India, secession of East Pakistan, and the collapse of the military government. Country's literacy status: • At the time of the emergence of the "new" Pakistan in 1972, the country's literacy status was as follows: • Overall literacy rate was 21.7 percent, urban literacy was 41.5 percent, rural literacy was 14.3 percent, • Male literacy was 30.2 percent, and female literacy was 11.6 percent. Rural female literacy was 4.7 percent.(Kaiser Bengali 1999)
The Education Policy:1972-1980 The 1972-1980 Education Policy was drafted in a somewhat matter of fact tone and refrained from philosophical pronouncements. Objectives: • Policy aimed at “eradicating illiteracy within the shortest possible time through universalization of elementary education and a massive adult education programme. • Equalizing access to education through provision of special facilities for women. • Under-privileged groups and mentally-retarded and physically-handicapped children and adults in all areas in general and the backward areas in particular will give preference.
The Education Policy: 1972-80 • Policy declared that education will be made free and universal up to class x for all children throughout the country in both government and privately-managed schools. • Private schools will be suitably supported for the loss of fees incurred by them. • The earlier objective of compulsory education was discarded. • The Policy proposed to construct 61,000 additional class-rooms for primary classes, train 150,000 teachers, and recruit an additional 75,000 teachers through the National Literacy Corps.
The Education Policy: 1972-80 • The 1972 Policy identified 40 million adult illiterates in the country and declared that a massive literacy program will be undertaken in every town. • literacy centers will be established all over the country in schools, factories, farms, union council halls and other community places. • A target of establishing 276,000 literacy centers to educate 11 million persons was fixed for the period 1972-80. • The new Education Policy was finally adopted by the Cabinet on March 26, 1970.
Implementation • This policy was a good approach towards betterment, but has many drawbacks due to which it cannot be achieved thoroughly e.g. universal basic education, shift towards agro technical studies etc.
National Education Policy and Implementation Programme: 1979 Salient features: • The 1979 Education Policy was presented one year after the launching of the Fifth Five Year Plan, with a change of target dates. • The Fifth Plan proposed to enroll all boys of Class I age by 1982-83 and achieve universal enrolment for the entire age group (5-9) by 1986-87 • the 1979 Policy proposed to achieve the same by 1987 and 1992, respectively.. • The Policy was presented as “the first in recognizing the great potentials of our indigenous institutions and patronizing them for bringing about greater educational development”.
National Education Policy and Implementation Programme: 1979 • The Policy aimed at providing a minimum acceptable level of functional literacy and fundamental education to all citizens of the country particularly the young, irrespective of their faith, caste, and creed in order to enable them to participate productively in the total national effort. • The Policy also provided for an elaborate adult education programme. • The programme proposed to set up 10,000 adult literacy centers to be sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Pakistan Television Centers, IRDP markazes, Allama Iqbal Open University study centers, and social welfare centers.
National Education Policy and Implementation Programme: 1979 • The possibility of a student volunteer corps, comprising bachelors and master’s level students was also envisaged. • It was claimed that the programme will raise literacy levels from 24 percent to 35 percent by 1983 and attain 100 percent literacy by 2010.” • The 1981 population census results regarding the literacy status of the country constituted an evaluation, without comment, of the educational policies and plans over the three decades since independence in 1947. • The Policy was announced in February 1979.
National Aims of Education The policy presented a 9-point statement of “National Aims of Education" and a 12-point implementation strategy. The implementation programme was ambitious and proposed to: 1.Achieve universal class I enrolment of boys by 1987 and of girls by 1992. 2. Eliminate wastage to achieve 60 percent retention rate by 1983 and 100 percent thereafter 3. Reconstruct/improve 17,000 existing primary schools 4. Open 13,000 new primary schools, mainly in rural areas 5. Establish 5000 mosque schools for boys 6. Provide equipment to 12,000 existing schools
National Aims of Education 7. Supply text-books to all students at the primary level . 8. Supply at least one teaching kit to all existing and new schools 9. Experiment with different mixes of inputs to determine direction for large scale investment in primary education 10. Carry out a nation-wide school mapping exercise to evolve a process of school location planning 11. Undertake a nation-wide survey to determine repair needs of existing primary schools and launch a programme of repairs. 12. In addition to the 5000 Mosque schools for boys, the Programme also envisaged opening 5000 Mohalla schools for girls, and 1000 Village Workshop schools to impart training in “mother trades like carpentry, masonry and agriculture” and focus on “appropriate skill development linked with community needs”.
Implementation • This policy was not implemented properly and failed due to lack of planning and financial resources.
National Education Policy: 1992 • The socio-political milieu, among other factors, promoted to reshuffle the priorities, restate the policy, revise the strategy, and re-examine the fabric of education in Pakistan. • A series of educational conferences were held in the Provinces which were attended by a large number of educationists and educational administrators from the primary to the university level. • A National Conference was held at Islamabad in April, 1991 under the chairmanship of the Federal Education Minister. • A cross section of the society comprising scholars, writers,newspaper editors, scientists, teachers and Lawyers participated and discussed proposals for preparing the dynamics of the Education Policy.
National Education Policy: 1992 Key elements of the policy are: 1. Opening non-formal education to non-governmental organizations; 2. Achieving 100% literacy in selected districts; 3. Setting up model schools (male and female) in rural areas; 4. Introducing compulsory social service for students; 5. Using general schools as technical schools in the evening shift to capture the drop-outs of general education.
Concerned Issues • The participation rates at various levels of education are low. • The progress in the direction of universalization of primary education is far from satisfactory. • At primary level, the drop-out rates are in the vicinity of 50 per cent. • The women participation in education is minimal. • The policy on the medium of instruction has vacillated. • The quality of public instruction continues to deteriorate; the system has not responded to the inputs made.
Concerned Issues • The curricula, apart from being overloaded, have not kept pace with the advancement of knowledge. So are the textbooks which do not promote self-learning.” • Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the region currently estimated at about 34 per cent. • The literacy ratios have been further aggravated because of the absence of meaningful literacy programmes and a rapid population growth. • Consequently, all children who are not enrolled, and those who drop-out early, join the multitude of illiterates every year. • Ignoring the existence of LAMEC, it also bemoaned that: “At present there is no national programme of adult literacy.
Recommendations • As it primary objective, the Policy stated thus: “Basic education for all shall be pursued not merely as a sect oral target, but as an integral part of human development plan. • The ultimate aim is to eliminate disparity , the drama of under-development • The raising of the collective ego of the nation through a facilitated, efficient and effective educational system remains the primary goal of the policy. • It hoped that the measures will lift the system to a respectable level of excellence during its growth in the next 10 years. • it proposed to ensure 100 per cent participation of children in education at the primary level by the year 2002, and to eradicate illiteracy through formal and non-formal methods.
Recommendations • It also proposed to “increase the literacy rate to 70 per cent by the year 2002. • Primary education was to be made compulsory. • A major shift in strategy also occurred, in the sense that it proposed to shift most of the adult education programmes to non-governmental organizations, to be supported through ‘incentive’ grants from provincial and federal Education foundations. • The Policy proposed what it called innovations as “a tool for quantum jump towards excellence.” • The Policy was announced in December 1992.
Implementation • This policy could not be implemented due to change in political scenario of country
Educational policy of Pakistan 1998 to 2010 Introduction: According to the constitution of 1973, article 25 1. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law. 2. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone. 3. Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998 -2010 Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education: • Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. • To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. • Nazira Qur'an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII • While at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur'an will be offered.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Literacy and Non-Formal Education: • The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 • Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age. • Group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. • Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. • The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Elementary Education: • About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. • Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. • Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. • Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Secondary Education: • One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. • A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. • It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. • Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. • The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Teacher Education: • To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. • The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. • Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Technical and Vocational Education: • To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. • Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. • Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. • A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Higher Education : • Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. • Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. • Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. • Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. • Local M.Phil. And PhD programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened • Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. • In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Information Technology: • Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. • School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc Library and Documentation Services: • School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. • Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. • Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Private Sector in Education • Encouraging private investment in education. • Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. • Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. • The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government. • Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Innovative Programs: • The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. • Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. • This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. • Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998 -2010 Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation: • A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. • The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. • The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. • The total expenditure of the government on education will be raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year 2002-03
Gaps in Education policy implementation in Pakistan Poor communication system: • Policy implementation is a dynamic process. Education policies in Pakistan are plagued by poor communication. • less support from the stakeholders, less ownership of the policy by the stakeholders. Weak administration: • Government of Pakistan (1979) says that for proper implementation of policies effective implementation agencies are important. • Various initiatives for policy implementation failed due to weak administrative machinery at the grassroots level. The agencies at this level did not own the policies (UNESCO & Government of Pakistan, 2003).
Gaps in Education policy implementation in Pakistan Poor policy evaluation mechanisms: • Akbar (1995) elaborates that precise, accurate and clear policy directives produce creativity and adaptability which helps in the effective implementation as well. • less precise directive does not leave room for the policy implementers to use their discretion and flexibility which is normally needed for better policy implementation. Financial gaps and irregularities: • In its report UNESCO (2005) has found that inadequate financial resources for education in Pakistan have hindered the policy implementation. • According to Saleemi (2010) financial resource in any system plays the role of a life blood. • Without enough monitory support no system can work effectively.
Gaps in Education policy implementation in Pakistan Attitudes and dispositions of public servants: • Attitude and disposition is one of the key factors that affect implementation process. • It has been explored by Abbas (1994) that bureaucratic underpinnings have placed more pressures on the teachers’ community in Pakistan. • This trend has given rise to feelings of alienation among the teachers. Inefficient Bureaucratic Structure: • Ghaffar (1992) narrates that unless and until there is an efficient bureaucratic structure along strong professional knowledge. • The problem of implementation will remain unresolved despite of having clear communication, resources and positive disposition.
Gaps in Education policy implementation in Pakistan Failure of decentralization measures: • Zaki (1992) has found that in Pakistan devolution of responsibilities in any system is not always accompanied by devolution of authority which has created many complications in the discharge of the services. • Naseem (1990) further elaborates that decentralization provides better opportunities for the beneficiaries at the grass root level. Lack of political will: • Political will of the local implementers play a pivotal role in effective implementation process. • In Pakistan, due to none or less participation of local implementer such as school principals, teachers and students, ownership factor of the policy becomes weak. • Jatoi (1995) believes that success of implementation of a policy depends largely on the political will of the policy makers and policy implementers alike.
Gaps in Education policy implementation in Pakistan Deeply entrenched corruption: • Riaz(1998) writes that for successful implementation of any policy, it is essential that the stakeholder are ready to sacrifice their personal interest on the interest of the system and for the general welfare of all irrespective of nay personal whim or vested interests. • This type of attitude develops an environment of trust and transparency. • Education system in Pakistan has been made hostage to evils for many years after its inception. • This trend of corruption has played with the foundations of the overall system.