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Emergency Action DR ABC It has been designed to keep the person breathing until an ambulance arrives. Without oxygen, the brain is damaged within just 3 or 4 minutes and dead within 10. D = Danger Check the area for danger such as electricity.

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Emergency Action


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dr abc
DR ABC
  • It has been designed to keep the person breathing until an ambulance arrives.
  • Without oxygen, the brain is damaged within just 3 or 4 minutes and dead within 10.
d danger
D = Danger
  • Check the area for danger such as electricity.
  • If you find danger, do not put yourself at risk or else you could also become a casualty. Your safety comes first! Shout or phone for help.
  • If there is no danger clear the area around the casualty. This could be as simple as stopping the game.
r response
R = Response
  • Shake the casualty by the shoulders and shout ‘Can you hear me?’
  • If there is a response they are conscious and this can tell you how weak they are.
  • You can also find out where they are in pain (bleeding, broken bones) and stop it from getting worse and phone an ambulance.
  • If there is no response the casualty is unconscious. This is very serious. Move on to resuscitation (A, B and C).
a airway
A = Airway
  • When a person in unconscious their tongue can block the airway and preventing this is very important.
  • Loosen any tight clothing.
  • Raise the chin and tilt the head back to open up the airway fully.
  • Remove any obvious obstruction such as a gum shield.
  • Use a tissue round your fingers to scrape away vomit.
b breathing
B = Breathing
  • Is the casualty breathing?
  • Look for the chest rising and falling and listen for breathing sounds.
  • You can also moisten your cheek and put it near their mouth to feel any breath.
  • If they are breathing stop any severe bleeding and support any broken bones.
  • You can also place them in the recovery position while you get help.
  • But if the casualty shows no signs of breathing, move on to C.
c circulation
C = Circulation
  • Feel for the carotid pulse, below the ear, at either side of the ‘Adams Apple’.
  • A pulse shows the heart is beating and blood is circulating, so you need to give mouth to mouth (kiss of life) to restore breathing.
  • If there is no pulse you need to give both cardiac massage and mouth-to-mouth ventilation, to restore breathing.
calling for help
Calling for Help
  • Dial 999 and the operator will ask you “Which service do you require?, What your phone number is?”, in case you get cut off.
  • Do not hang up!!!
  • When you finally get through, be ready to explain exactly where the casualty is and the nature of the injury/ies.
mouth to mouth ventilation
Mouth-to-mouth Ventilation
  • Make sure the casualty’s mouth is fully open.
  • Pinch the casualty’s nostrils closed with your thumb and first finger.
  • Take a deep breath and seal your lips firmly around the casualty’s open mouth.
  • Breathe out smoothly and firmly until you see the casualty’s chest rise.