Effective Presentations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Effective Presentations D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD, FCSB Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

  2. Contents Effective presentations should consist of five parts. • Introduction • Background/Theory/Review of Literature • Methods • Results & Discussion • Conclusions/Future Directions

  3. Introduction • Must answer the question why is/was this research conducted or necessary • Includes purpose of the study • Hypothesis(es) being tested • Short and long term objectives may be identified • What is the “question”?

  4. Background • Includes “essential” review of the literature • Should include basis (thesis) for any hypotheses • Keep it brief • Theoretical framework may be presented if necessary

  5. Methods • Sample size and population described−give statistical power, if known • Show figure of experimental setup • Outline of methods, refer to literature if possible • Describe experimental protocol • In a proposal include statistical methods, in a defense save these for results and discussion • Another researcher should be able to duplicate study from description

  6. Results • Consists of tables, figures and descriptive statistics • Be sure to include all relevant labels and units of measure • Identify any codes or abbreviations used in figures and tables • Point out most significant results (only a few if there are time constraints)

  7. Discussion • Interpret the results in light of the objectives and hypotheses outlined in the Introduction • Presumably you can answer the question(s) posed in the Introduction • Present and interpret the major statistical findings especially any “significant differences” • Relate your study to the existing literature

  8. Conclusions • List the most important statistically significant findings • Any statement must be supported by the data you collected • Do not extrapolate your findings • Avoid weak statements (may, might, seems, etc.) • Use affirmative language and active verbs • Should answer the “question”

  9. Visual Presentation The following slides show various good and bad layouts.

  10. Too Many Figures and Cluttered Placement • Instrumentation in Biomechanics • Photocells and timers • Videography • Electromyographs • Accelerometers

  11. Slightly Better • Instrumentation in Biomechanics • Photocells and timers • Videography • Electromyographs • Accelerometers

  12. Keep Graphics toMaximum of Four or Five Bortec system Noraxon system Delsys electrodes Mega system

  13. Control points Too Cluttered? EMG cables Monitor Subject Keyboard Cine or Video camera Force platform Trial number

  14. Better EMG cables Cine or Video camera Force platform

  15. Too Many Levels of Bullets Manual goniometer • Angular position • Protractor • Goniometer • Manual • Electrical • Photo-optical • Linear acceleration • Accelerometry • Strain-gauge • Piezoelectric • Piezoresistive • Calibrated • Uncalibrated • Videography • VHS • Beta • CCD Miniature accelerometers

  16. Better Manual goniometer • Linear position • Ruler, tape measure, optical • Angular position • Protractor, inclinometer, goniometer • Linear acceleration • Accelerometry, videography • Angular acceleration • Videography Miniature accelerometers

  17. Too Much Text and Fonts Too Small The Kinetic Wedge was designed to place the first ray in a greater plantar flexed position and the proximal phalanx more dorsiflexed relative to the first metatarsal. Clinicians believed that the limitation of the joint is bypassed with the joint at this initial position, thereby increasing the ability of the first MTP joint to dorsiflex (Figure 4). Podiatric clinicians suggest that FHL can result in slight disruptions of the inverted pendulum's centre of gravity (CoG) through the sagittal plane (Winter, 1995; Dananberg, 1986, 1993). According to clinicians, FHL leads to compensatory postural changes such as a forward lean to restore the pendulum (Figure 3). Clinicians suggest this FHL compensatory action may be a contributor to low back pain. Figure 3. Compensatory forward lean The podiatric community uses custom foot orthoses (CFO) with the Kinetic Wedge modification (Langer) to improve MTP joint function and gait posture of individuals with FHL (Figure 5).

  18. About Right? Causes of motion • Forces and moments of force • Work, energy and power • Impulse and momentum • Inverse Dynamics derives forces and moments from kinematics and body segment parameters (mass, centre of gravity, and moment of inertia)

  19. Background Too Complex and Too Distracting • Weight (W) • Ground reaction force (Fg)

  20. Better but stillToo Distracting • Weight (W) • Ground reaction force (Fg)

  21. Use a Simple Background and Maintain Throughout • Weight (W) • Ground reaction force (Fg)

  22. Background can beDark or Light • Weight (W) • Ground reaction force (Fg)

  23. Transitions should be Simple and Consistent • Weight (W) • Ground reaction force (Fg)

  24. Use a Different Transition for Effect but Sparingly • Weight (W) • Ground reaction force (Fg)

  25. Keep the Fonts Simple(presentation computer may not have your font installed) • Female subject • Laboratory walkway • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off • CFS = contralateral foot-strike • CTO = contralateral toe-off

  26. Many Presentations use San Serif Only • Female subject • Laboratory walkway • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off • CFS = contralateral foot-strike • CTO = contralateral toe-off

  27. Use Text Colours for Emphasis(One or Two, Three is Maximum) • Female subject • Laboratory walkway • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off • CFS = contralateral foot-strike • CTO = contralateral toe-off

  28. Use Colour Coordinated TemplatesHigh Contrast (Text/Background){not like this one} • Female subject • Laboratory walkway • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off • CFS = contralateral foot-strike • CTO = contralateral toe-off

  29. Textbooks use Sans Serif (e.g., Arial) for Titles, Serif (e.g., Times) for Text • Female subject • Laboratory walkway • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off • CFS = contralateral foot-strike • CTO = contralateral toe-off

  30. Proper Font Size is Important(24 to 32 points, Below are 18 and 14) • Female subject • Laboratory walkway • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast) • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off • CFS = contralateral foot-strike • CTO = contralateral toe-off

  31. Should be Approximately One Slide per Minute • The use of dual slide projectors (now uncommon) is NOT recommended. • If used, make sure there are two slides for each transition, otherwise you may get out of synchrony. 34

  32. 35mm Slides • It is advisable to number your slides to ensure correct ordering and to permit quick loading. • Use of “thumbprints” are recommended to ensure that slides are projected correctly. • Slides go in projector upside down. • Thumbprints don’t actually appear in the slide. 35

  33. Clipart • Text only presentations are boring. • Clipart adds interest but can be distracting. • Don’t use too many--one or two.

  34. Tables and Histograms • Tables should be used to summarize numerical data. • Histograms can be used if there are too few numbers for a table.

  35. Table Too Detailed

  36. Still Too Many and Difficult to Read

  37. Still Too Many but Readable

  38. About Right or Less?

  39. Keep Number of Bars Small

  40. Background Box Helps

  41. Flexion Extension Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment Power Flexors Extensors H1 Concentric H3 H2 Eccentric ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Time Keep Figures Big

  42. Including Text Focuses Your Audience Flexion Extension Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment • Positive work by flexors to swing leg Power Flexors Extensors • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh H1 Concentric H3 • Negative work by flexors to control extension H2 Eccentric ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Time

  43. Colours Help to Distinguish Different Items in Figures Flexion Extension Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity Moment • Positive work by flexors to swing leg Power Flexors Extensors • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh H1 Concentric H3 • Negative work by flexors to control extension H2 Eccentric ITO IFS CTO CFS ITO Time

  44. Include Labels and Units in Figures and Tables 10 Flexion 0 Extension Trial: 2SFN3 -10 Ang. velocity Moment • Positive work by flexors to swing leg Power 100 Flexors 0 Power (W) Moment (N.m) A ng. Vel. (rad/s) Extensors • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh -100 H1 Concentric H3 100 0 • Negative work by flexors to control extension H2 Eccentric -100 IFS CTO CFS ITO CFS ITO -200 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Time (s)

  45. PowerPoint Slides(Permit Animations and Multimedia) • Bulleted text can be sequenced. • So can other elements such as figures, tables and arrows. • If text and arrows are synchronized the text must be in separate windows and grouped. • If left ungrouped you need to press a key for each element to appear. 5

  46. PowerPoint Slides(Permit Animations and Multimedia) • Bulleted text can be sequenced. • So can other elements such as figures, tables and arrows. • If text and arrows are synchronized the text must be in separate windows and grouped. • If left ungrouped you need to press a key for each element to appear. • Don’t use too many effects, unless there is a good reason. 5

  47. 10 Dorsiflexion 0 Plantar flexion Trial: 2SFN3 -10 Ang. velocity Moment Power 100 Dorsiflexors 0 Power (W) Moment (N.m) Ang. Vel. (rad/s) Plantar flexors -100 100 Concentric 0 Eccentric -100 IFS CTO CFS ITO CFS ITO -200 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Time (s) Ungrouped Elements Require Extra Mouse Clicks • Dorsiflexors produce dorsiflexion during swing • Plantar flexors control dorsiflexion A2 A1 • Large burst of power by plantar flexors for push-off

  48. 10 0 -10 100 0 Power (W) Moment (N.m) Ang. Vel. (rad/s) -100 100 0 -100 -200 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Time (s) Grouped Elements are More Efficient Extension Flexion Trial: 2SFN3 Ang. velocity • Negative work by flexors to control extension prior to foot-strike Moment Power Extensors Flexors • Burst of power to cushion landing Concentric K2 • Negative work by extensors to control flexion at push-off K4 K1 K3 Eccentric IFS CTO CFS ITO CFS ITO

  49. Be Sure to Test the Animation Thoroughly 10 Flexion 0 Extension Trial: 2SFN3 -10 Ang. velocity Moment • Positive work by flexors to swing leg Power 100 Flexors 0 Power (W) Moment (N.m) A ng. Vel. (rad/s) Extensors • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh -100 H1 Concentric H3 100 0 • Negative work by flexors to control extension H2 Eccentric -100 IFS CTO CFS ITO CFS ITO -200 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Time (s)

  50. Multimedia Items Add Interest but Create Large Files • Be sure the file is included with your presentation • Zip disks, CD-ROMs and USB (Pen) drives can hold large files • Keep the clip short and allow continuous play