Depression and Stress Management Dr WalidSayed ABDELKADER Head of Preventive Medicine and Primary Care division International Medical Centre Cairo – Egypt June 2009 imceg.com
Depression What is depression? Symptoms of depression. Types of depression. Causes of depression Management of depression
What is depression? • Depression is a "whole-body" illness, involving your body, mood, and thoughts. It affects the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself, and the way you think about things.
Symptoms of depression • Changes in Thinking • Changes in feeling • Changes in Behavior • Changes in Physical Well-being
Symptoms of depression • Changes in Thinking 1-you may experience problems with concentration and decision making. 2-Some people report difficulty with short term memory. 3-some may forget things all the time. 4-Negative thoughts and thinking are characteristic of depression. 5-Pessimism 6-Poor self-esteem, excessive guilt and self-criticism are all common. 7-Some people have self-destructive thoughts during a more serious depression.
Symptoms of depression Change in feeling 1-You may feel sad for no reason at all. 2-No longer enjoy activities that were found pleasurable. 3- Might lack motivation, and become more apathetic. 4- May feel "slowed down" and tired all the time. 5-Sometimes irritability is a problem. 6- Difficulty in controlling your temper. 7-In the extreme, depression is characterized by feelings of helplessness and hopelessness.
Symptoms of depression • Changes in Behavior 1-Some people do not feel comfortable with others 2-Social withdrawal is common. 3- Some have experience of a dramatic change in appetite,either eating more or less. 4-Some people complain about everything, and act out their anger with temper outbursts. 5- Sexual desire may disappear, resulting in lack of sexual activity. 6- In the extreme, people may neglect their personal appearance, even neglecting basic hygiene.
Symptoms of depression: • Changes in Physical Well-being 1-Chronic fatigue 2-Spending more time sleeping, is common. 3-Some people can't sleep, or don't sleep soundly. 4-These individuals lay awake for hours, or awaken many times during the night, and stare at the ceiling. 5-Others sleep many hours, even most of the day, although they still feel tired. 6- Many people lose their appetite, feel slowed down by depression, and complain of many aches and pains.
Sad, empty mood Anxious Hopelessness Feeling worthless or helpless Loss of interest in things you once had interest in Low sex drive Decreased energy Headaches Decreased concentration Diminished memory Change in sleeping patterns Change in appetite Weight loss/gain Suicidal or morbid thoughts Easily irritated Digestive disorders Symptoms of depression:
Causes of depression • Chemical imbalances in the brain • Run in families • Low self-esteem • Environmental factors • Individual factors
Diagnoses for depression • determined by: • the intensity of the symptoms. • the duration of the symptoms. • the specific cause of the symptoms, if that is known.
Types of depression • Major depression • Dysthmic disorder • Unspecified depression • Adjustment disorder, with depression • Bipolar depression
HOW TO HELP YOURSELF IF YOU ARE DEPRESSED • Set realistic goals in light of the depression and assume a reasonable amount of responsibility. • Break large tasks into small ones, set some priorities, and do what you can as you can. • Try to be with other people and to confide in someone; it is usually better than being alone and secretive. • Participate in activities that may make you feel better. • Mild exercise, going to a movie, a ballgame, or participating in religious, social, or other activities may help. • Expect your mood to improve gradually, not immediately. Feeling better takes time. • It is advisable to postpone important decisions until the depression has lifted. Before deciding to make a significant transition—change jobs, get married or divorced—discuss it with others who know you well and have a more objective view of your situation. • People rarely "snap out of" a depression. But they can feel a little better day-by-day. • Remember, positive thinking will replace the negative thinking that is part of the depression and will disappear as your depression responds to treatment. • Let your family and friends help you.
Individual Approaches to Managing Stress • Exercise : People of all ages are walking, riding bicycles, attending aerobic classes, practicing yoga, swimming, playing tennis. • Diet : Diet plays indirect role in stress management. Foods with high sugar content stimulate or prolong the stress response and high-cholesterol foods adversely affect blood chemistry.
Individual Approaches to Managing Stress • Relaxation : The relaxation response reverses the stress response in the human mind –body system. When it is practiced; the individual sits peace-fully in a comfortable chair in quiet location. All tight clothing is loosened before the person becomes completely still. The individual allows 20 to 30 minutes to pass while he is in this quiet state. Once the relaxation period is completed, the individual opens his eyes fully and sits peacefully for a minute or two before getting up. Practitioners of medication and relaxation exercises claim that it reduces their heart rates, blood pressure and other physiological indicators of stress.
Individual Approaches to Managing Stress • Opening up : We all experience traumatic events in life. A healthy response to these moments or periods of personal crisis is to confide in others. Individuals who wrote once a week about traumatic events had healthier outlooks and lower absenteeism.
Professional help: Sometimes people have problem coping on their own and they seek professional help or clinical counseling. People who want this kind of help can choose among psychological counseling, career counseling, financial and family counseling, physical therapy, medical treatment, surgical intervention and stress debriefing. Individual Approaches to Managing Stress
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