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DNA VACCINES. NEERAJ KUMAR ,AVTAR , (students) JITENDER MEHLA (Research Scholar) ,NDRI and Dr. S.K. Sood , Senior scientist,NDRI,Karnal. Introduction History DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines How DNA vaccine is made Methods of delivery How DNA vaccine works.

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slide1

DNA VACCINES

NEERAJ KUMAR ,AVTAR , (students)

JITENDER MEHLA (Research Scholar) ,NDRI

and Dr. S.K. Sood , Senior scientist,NDRI,Karnal

contents
Introduction

History

DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines

How DNA vaccine is made

Methods of delivery

How DNA vaccine works

Advantages

Disadvantages

Current clinical trials

Safety issues

Future of DNA vaccines

Conclusion

References

CONTENTS
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • DNA vaccine is DNA sequence used as a vaccine.
  • This DNA Sequence code for antigenic protein of pathogen.
  • As this DNA inserted into cells it is translated to form antigenic protein. As this protein is foreign to cells , so immune response raised against this protein.
  • In this way ,DNA vaccine provide immunity against that pathogen.
history
HISTORY
  • In 1990, University of Wisconsin, Jon Wolff found that injection of DNA plasmids produce a protein response in mice.
  • In 1993, Merck Research Laboratories, Dr.Margaret Liu found that intramuscular injection of DNA from influenzae virus into mice produced complete immune response
  • In 1996, trials involving T-cell lymphoma, influenzae & herpes simplex virus were started
dna vaccines vs traditional vaccines
Uses only the DNA from infectious organisms.

Avoid the risk of using actual infectious organism.

Provide both Humoral & Cell mediated immunity

Refrigeration is not required

Uses weakened or killed form of infectious organism.

Create possible risk of the vaccine being fatal.

Provide primarily Humoral immunity

Usually requires Refrigeration.

DNA vaccines Vs Traditional vaccines

Traditional vaccines

DNA vaccines

how dna vaccine is made
HOW DNA VACCINE IS MADE

Viral gene

Recombinant DNA Technology

Expression plasmid

Plasmid with foreign gene

slide7

Transform into bacterial cell

Plasmid DNA

Bacterial cell

methods of delivery
METHODS OF DELIVERY
  • Syringe delivery:-

Either intramuscularly

or

Intradermally

contd
Contd..
  • Gene gun delivery:-
  • Adsorbed plasmid DNA

into gold particles

  • Ballastically accelerated

into body with gene gun.

how dna vaccine works
HOW DNA VACCINE WORKS

BY TWO PATHWAYS

ENDOGENOUS :-Antigenic Protein is presented by

cell in which it is produced

EXOGENOUS :-Antigenic Protein is formed in

one cell but presented by

different cell

how dna vaccines work
HOW DNA VACCINES WORK

+

Muscle Cells

Plasmid DNA

slide14

ENDOGENOUS PATHWAY

Nucleus

PlasmidDNA

MHC-I

mRNA

Antigenic Peptides

Antigenic Protein

slide15

T- Helper Cell

Multiply

Memory T cells

slide16

EXOGENOUS PATHWAY

Antigenic Protein come outside

slide17

Phagocytosed

Antigen Presenting Cell

Antigenic Peptides

Memory Antibodies

T- Helper Cell

Cytokines

Plasma B-Cell

MHC-II

Activated B-Cell

Memory B-Cell

slide18

WHEN VIRUS ENTER IN THE BODY

Memory T-Cell

Viral Protein

Antibodies

advantages
ADVANTAGES
  • Elicit both Humoral & cell mediated immunity
  • Focused on Antigen of interest
  • Long term immunity
  • Refrigeration is not required
  • Stable for storage
disadvantages
DISADVANTAGES
  • Limited to protein immunogen only
  • Extended immunostimulation leads to chronic inflammation
  • Some antigen require processing which sometime does not occur
current clinical trials
CURRENT CLINICAL TRIALS
  • June 2006,DNA vaccine examined on horse

Horse acquired immunity against west

nile viruses

  • August 2007,DNA vaccination against multiple Sclerosis was reported as being effective
genetic toxicity
Genetic Toxicity

Integration of DNA vaccine into host Genome

Insertional mutagenesis

Chromosome instability

Turn ON Oncogenes

Turn OFF Tumor suppressor genes

over expression of dna vaccine
Over Expression of DNA vaccine

Acute or chronic inflammatory responses

Destruction of normal tisues

generation of autoimmune diseases
Generation of Autoimmune diseases

Anti DNA Antibodies

Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune Myositis

antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic Resistance

Plasmid used is resistance to antibiotics for selection

Raise the resistance to same antibiotic in the host

future prospects
FUTURE PROSPECTS
  • Plasmid with multiple genes provide immunity against many diseases in one booster
  • DNA vaccines against infectious diseases such as AIDS, Rabies, Malaria can be available
conclusion
CONCLUSION

DNA vaccines are in their early phase.

There are no DNA vaccines in market at

present.

But this just the beginning .

DNA vaccines are going to be the vaccines of

next generation.

references
References
  • www.medscape.com
  • www.wikipedia.org
  • www.sciencedirect.com
  • www.nature.com
  • www.biokenyon.com
  • www.biolife.com
  • Immunology by Kuby 6th Edition
  • Immunology by Tizard 4th Edition
slide31

?

Queries