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Olympic Sport Governance

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  1. Olympic Sport Governance Chapter 13

  2. Identification • International Olympic Committee (IOC) • International Federations (IF) • National Olympic Committees (NOC) • United States Olympic Committee (USOC) • Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act • National Governing Bodies (NGB) • USA Basketball, USA Track and Field ect. Chapter 13

  3. History of the Olympic Games • Ancient Olympics • 1st Olympics 776 BC • Wars were stopped for contests • Only Greek men participated • Modern Olympics • Baron Pierre de Coubertin (Father) • 1896, 1st modern games in Athens, Greece • Today, Summer & Winter Olympic Games • 2010-Youth Olympics (ages 14 to 18) Chapter 13

  4. The Olympic Games (OG) • Most significant sporting competition in the world • Scheduled every four years for summer and winter events • Olympic gold medals often mean recognition, financial success, nation building, and legitimization of political ideologies. • “Faster, Higher, Stronger” motto • Media extravaganza with 2.5 billion TV viewers • Cultural festival • International political stage Chapter 13

  5. Governance • Three Main Levels: 1. International Olympic Committee (IOC) 2. National Olympic Committee (NOC) 3. Organizing Committee for Olympic Games (OCOG) Chapter 13

  6. International Olympic Committee (IOC) • June 23, 1894 • Founded to govern Olympic organization & policy • Headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland • Non-profit organization • Independent of any government or nationality • Members elected from worldwide sporting community Chapter 13

  7. IOC • Facts: • Non-Profit Organization • Ownership of Rights to Olympic Games • Hosting Country Guaranteed Some $$$ • “Sport w/o Money Today is Impossible” • Future Olympics…get $$$ from Hosting Rights Fees Chapter 13

  8. IOC • Organizational structure (3 components): 1. The Session • General meeting of IOC members • Adopt/modify policy 2. The Executive Board • Management/overall direction of IOC between meetings • Specific responsibilities • The Office of President • President elected from members of the session • Official spokesperson of IOC • Initial eight-year term (re-election one 4-yr term) Chapter 13

  9. IOC Executive Board Chapter 13

  10. IOC Mission • Encourage sport development, coordination, and collaboration • Ensure that the games are held regularly • Promote peace, sport ethics, fair play, and concern for the environment • Fight discrimination, violence, doping, and other health endangering practices • Oppose political or commercial abuse of athletes and sport • Serve Olympic movement • Organize & govern policy for staging of OG’s • Further cause & understanding of OG’S • Concerned with what is best for the Olympics • Not what is best for home country • Support the International Olympic Academy and the study of the Olympics Chapter 13

  11. International Federations (IF) • The International Federations govern their sport at a global level • They ensure the promotion and development of sport and the development of the athletes who practice it, at all levels • During the Olympic Games, the International Federations are responsible for the practical organization of the sports events on the program • All the technical aspects of a sport are their responsibi­lity: the rules, equipment, venues, judging, etc. • International Federations like the (IAAF), for example, also conduct in and out of competition drug testing Chapter 13

  12. National Olympic Committee (NOC) • Controls operations & policy for particular country • Selects delegates to represent nation • Selects city w/in nation as Olympic host site • United states Olympic committee (USOC) • Founded 1894 • Selected Chicago as host site for 2016 summer Olympics Chapter 13

  13. United State Olympic Committee (USOC) • Mission: • Govern, manage, promote, & liaisons w/in & outside U.S. For activities of: • Olympics • Paralympics • Pan American games • “Premier sports organization” in U.S. • Financials: • Non-profit association (budget $491M) • Does not receive federal government subsidies • Olympic marketing & sales rights/corporate partnerships • U.S. Olympic foundation Chapter 13

  14. USOC • Olympic sport organizations (39) • Pan American sport organizations (6) • Affiliated sport organizations (4) • Community-based multi-sport organizations (20) • Education-based multi-sport organizations (4) • Armed forces (4) Chapter 13

  15. USOC • Organizational Structure: • 500 staff & volunteers • Board of Directors • Ultimate authority & responsibility • Business, policy development, USOC elections & activities • Active athletes 20% of BOD make-up • Officers • Responsible for business operations • President (elected volunteer) • CEO (paid employee) Chapter 13

  16. USOC • Executive Committee • Develop specific policies for BOD to consider • Oversees business operations • Selects & evaluates CEO • Other Committees • Deals w/ areas of importance & concern • Governance • Special task force • Ethics Chapter 13

  17. USOC Chapter 13

  18. Organizing Committees for Olympic Games (OCOG) • Formed after a city receives the bid to host the OG • Developed to manage one event at a time • Mission: • Reflects ideals of Olympic movement • Host the best • Be the best • Show the world the best Olympic Games ever • Financials: • Olympic Games = Big business • Objective: have a cash surplus ($$$ left over) • Corporate sponsorship • Government grants • Television rights • Licensing merchandise • Ticket sales Chapter 13

  19. OCOG • Membership: • Paid professional staff & volunteers • Organizational structure: • Board of directors • Governs & manage event planning • President • Act on behalf of board between meetings • Committees • Manage specific business operations Chapter 13

  20. National Sport Governing Bodies (NGB) • Each NGB is responsible for approving and sanctioning competitions open to all eligible athletes in its country. • NGB’s set the qualifying standards, national policies and eligibility requirements for participation in their respective sports. NGB’s are responsible for the preparation, development, and selection of the Olympic teams in their respective sports. • USA Track and Field (USATF) is the NGB responsible for the management and direction of the United States Track and Field Championships Chapter 13

  21. Function of the Main Governing Bodies • IOC • Ethics • Development of competitions • “Celebration of the Olympic Games” • Cooperation with related organizations • Promotion of women in sport • Health • Elimination of doping • Securing a future for sport • Olympic education • Positive legacy • USOC • “To support United States Olympic and Paralympic athletes in achieving sustained competitive excellence and preserve the Olympic ideals, and thereby inspire all Americans.” (USOC Bylaws. 2006) Chapter 13

  22. Authority • IOC • Localized management and authority of the Games • Copyrights • Trademarks • Host city decision • USOC • National Championships • Recommending athletes for Olympic teams • Funds for international competition • Designating teams for non-major international competition Chapter 13

  23. Requirements for Membership • IOC Membership: • Max. 115 Individuals • Up to 70 Years of Age • Elected By General Assembly • USOC Membership: • 78 member organizations • Categories Chapter 13

  24. Olympic Sport Issues • Financing • Host City Selection • Image and Politics of the Olympic Games • Reorganization • Security • Selection of New Olympic Sports • Decertification of Olympic Sports • Sponsorships • Substance Abuse and Doping Chapter 13

  25. Financing • Marketing Commission • Broadcast rights (53%) • Licensing and other revenues (2%) • Ticketing (11%) • Sponsorship (34%) Chapter 13

  26. IOC Legacy of Wealth • Key dates and influential points in developing the wealth: • Originally financed by tax money, philanthropy, state, federal, municipal contributions • 1936 (Berlin): first televised Olympics • 1956 (Melbourne): first distinction between news and entertainment (3min/day) • 1950s-1970s: ongoing struggle between keeping the Games “amateur” • Avery Brundage, IOC President: “Olympic Games became a huge business enterprise instead of another sports event” (1960s) • Since 1980s: “corporatization” – commercial interest and corporate identity • Peter Ueberoth Chair of LAOOC (1984) was charged by commodifying the Olympic torch: community organizations, businesses or individuals pay $3,000 for the honor of carrying the Olympic flame. Chapter 13

  27. Host City Selection • “Two-phase” election proceeding • Implemented December 1999 for 2008 • First Phase • NOC of each country selects a city and each selected city then becomes an applicant for the IOC to consider • Second Phase • Candidature file: a written document produced by each Candidate city • Visit from the IOC Evaluation Commission • IOC meets and votes Chapter 13

  28. Image and Politics of the Olympic Games • Image • Ensuring independence from any government or nation • Building an organization free from fraud • Aiding in the fight for improving the state of the world • Politics • Bid Selection Committee • Policy to fill vacancies within the organization • Lack of the inclusion of women • The use and abuse of the Olympic Games for political gain • Boycotting Chapter 13

  29. Reorganization • Evaluation and change of a committee’s internal structure • 2002 Winter Olympic bid disgrace • IOC Membership caps • IOC Member terms • Committee creation • The IOC also opened meetings and financial reports to the media and for publication Chapter 13

  30. Security • Munich 1972 • Impact of tragedy • Atlanta Games • Olympic Park bombing • Post 911 Olympic Games Security • Closed venues • Credentials • Metal detectors • X-ray screening • Hand search Chapter 13

  31. Selection of New Olympic Sports • Limits: 28 sports, 301 events, and 10,500 athletes • “Evaluation Criteria for Sports and Disciplines” • 33 criteria • Examples: history and tradition, popularity Chapter 13

  32. Decertification of Olympic Sports • 2005 Singapore Session • Baseball and softball removed from the Olympic program • Baseball • Doping failures • Softball • Universality • Popularity Chapter 13

  33. Sponsorships • The Olympic Partner Program (TOP) • Four-year deal • Funding in exchange for exclusive marketing rights • Suppliers • Providing services for limited marketing rights Chapter 13

  34. Substance Abuse and Doping • Athletes want the edge • Cocaine • Alcohol • Synthetic hormones (steroids) • Ben Johnson (1988) • Tests positive for anabolic steroids • Tour de France (1998) • Police raid finds banned substances in bulk Chapter 13

  35. Substance Abuse and Doping (continued) • Drug tests implemented 1968 Olympics • 1999: World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) • Mandates universality • Educational programs • Out-of-competition testing • Continually developing the prohibited list and test technology • 2000: U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) • Chief Wade Exum exposes scandal • Two million dollars a year is allocated for research to expand the prohibited substances list and to maintain the integrity of the drug test Chapter 13

  36. The Future • Youth Olympic Games • 2010 Summer Games • Summer and Winter Version • Ages 14-18 • Issues ? Chapter 13