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Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats A. Lakes and Ponds Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats A. Lakes and Ponds Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats

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slide1

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

slide2

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

slide3

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

profundal

slide4

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by temp; epilimnion, metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

slide6

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by depth; epilimnion (photic), metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

Shallow lakes (ponds) have a higher ratio of littoral/limnetic; as such, productivity is high - producing more biomass than the decomposers may be able to breakdown.

slide7

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by depth; epilimnion (photic), metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

Shallow lakes (ponds) have a higher ratio of littoral/limnetic; as such, productivity is high - producing more biomass than the decomposers may be able to breakdown.

This stimulates decomposition and drives down oxygen concentrations... this excessive productivity distinguishes a eutrophic lake.

slide9

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by depth; epilimnion (photic), metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

Shallow lakes (ponds) have a higher ratio of littoral/limnetic; as such, productivity is high - producing more biomass than the decomposers may be able to breakdown.

This stimulates decomposition and drives down oxygen concentrations... this excessive productivity distinguishes a eutrophic lake.

These eutrophic conditions can be stimulated by the anthropogenic input of nutrients - stimulating productivity above natural levels. - phosphates often a culprit

slide11

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communities remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

slide12

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communities remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

slide14

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communties remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

Lakes accumulate sediment and fill in, with vegetation encroaching

slide16

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communties remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

Lakes accumulate sediment and fill in, with vegetation encroaching

Rooted plants can draw nutrients from the benthos and remobilize it before it leaves the system; particularly phosphorus that can be limiting in freshwater systems. This remobilization can accelerate the eutrophication of lakes.

slide17

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communties remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

Lakes accumulate sediment and fill in, with vegetation encroaching

Rooted plants can draw nutrients from the benthos and remobilize it before it leaves the system; particularly phosphorus that can be limiting in freshwater systems. This remobilization can accelerate the eutrophication of lakes.

This pumping action has less impact on a large deep lake.

slide18

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

slide19

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

slide20

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

Production and decomposition can be spatially separated...

slide21

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

Production and decomposition can be spatially separated...

decomposition

nutrient transfer

productivity

slide22

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

Production and decomposition can be spatially separated...

And we often see downstream succession from "oligotrophic" cold, low productivity streams to "eutrophic", highly productive rivers.

slide23

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

slide24

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

slide25

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

slide26

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

slide27

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

slide28

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

slide29

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

slide30

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

- storm buffer

slide31

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

- storm buffer

- shellfish and benthos are productive

slide32

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

- storm buffer

- shellfish and benthos are productive

- filter water of impurities

slide33

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- mangroves in the tropics

slide34

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- salt marsh in temperate

slide35

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

slide36

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

slide37

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

slide38

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

slide39

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

slide40

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

- filter water (a little), but more dependent ON clear water

slide41

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

- filter water (a little), but more dependent ON clear water

slide42

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

- filter water (a little), but more dependent ON clear water

- Zooxanthellae are critical here... the water carries few dissolved nutrients - productivity and diversity is dependent upon photosynthetic symbionts in the coral, itself.

slide43

Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- Upwellings and the open ocean

I mentioned at the end of class that open oceans are "biological deserts" because the source of nutrients (from decomposition at the bottom of the ocean) is a long way from the euphotic zone... so algae are starved of nutrients and productivity is low.

The exception is where, as a consequence of the shape of the ocean basin or surface currents or islands, water from the depths is brought to the surface.... this is called an "upwelling" and it is a local productive area.

slide44

Equator

30 S

Surface currents are offshore, and deep water comes up along the coast to "fill the gap".

This brings nutrients up, and that's why Peru has the worlds largest and most productive anchovy fishery.

slide45

Georges Bank - shallow continental shelf, and the offshore Gulf Stream pulling surface waters offshore

slide46

surface water stripped from island, and deep nutrient-rich water takes its place.

in the photo above, red isn't heat... it is algal productivity.

slide47

surface water stripped from island, and deep nutrient-rich water takes its place.

so upwellings are a strong indication that surface ocean waters are usually starved of nutrients.