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Rolynda, N ishelle, Jared, and A lyssa. Death and Burial. Celtic/Druid Anciently. There are 1,300 stone circles (or megalithic rings) in England. Stonehenge, the most famous, represented the “domain of the dead”

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celtic druid anciently
Celtic/Druid Anciently
  • There are 1,300 stone circles (or megalithic rings) in England.
  • Stonehenge, the most famous, represented the “domain of the dead”
  • Only a select few were buried at Stonehenge over the centuries, 240 people in all.
celtic during the advent of christianity
Celtic during the Advent of Christianity
  • The circular design around the cross is unique to Celtic tradition.
  • Explanations of the meaning and origin of the encircled cross vary by folk group.
  • The scrollwork carved into the stone is traditional Celtic Knot iconography.
modern celtic druid
Modern Celtic/Druid
  • An emphasis on the interconnectivity of all living things.
  • The circle is a prominent emblem, from the way the congregation stands, the method of scattering the ashes if the deceased was cremated, to the Druidic recitations.
  • Confucian principle of filial piety
  • Lack of respect for youth
  • Cost of funeral
  • Symbols of colors in relation to funeral
    • White/Black
    • Red/pink
  • Duration of Funeral
  • 49 Days
  • Dynamitic
egyptian mummification
Egyptian Mummification
  • Embalming: 70 day process
  • Removal of Organs
  • Drying of Body
  • Return of Organs
  • Wrapping Process

Canopic Jars: Held removed organs for a time.

opening of the mouth
“Opening of the Mouth”
  • Rubs oils over mouth, eyes, and nose while chanting
  • Performed by Priest in Jackal mask: Anibus, God of Death
funeral procession
Funeral Procession
  • Lead by Priest
  • Dragged by ox on land, and carried by boat on water
  • Loved ones followed wailing and mourning
  • Friends or servants of deceased carried treasured belongings:
    • Food and Water
    • Furniture and Clothing
    • Memorabilia and Valued Objects
  • Sarcophagus placed in tomb
  • Celebration of Life Party
  • a fire ritual (homa) is performed to bless nine brass kumbhas (water pots) and one clay pot to clean the body.
  • Men move the body and cover with cloth
  • Children sing hymns
  • Women offer rice for the journey through Yama’s realm
  • The closest male relative passes oil and offers flowers
  • only men go to the site
  • infants are buried
  • The closest male relative lights the pyre
  • 12 hours after cremation the males sprinkle holy water and gather the ashes and deposit them in Ganges or a river or ocean with garlands and flowers
ritual impurity
Ritual Impurity
  • During the preparations up to a year the family will not attend temple, marriage arrangements, visits, etc
  • Cloth covers mirrors and pictures are turned in
  • Hindu do not suppress mourning but do not condone consistent sadness for they believe the spirit is aware of the families emotional state and negative emotions hold it to the earth.
  • On an odd day after cremation the family gathers for a feast of the dead’s favorite foods and offers portions to their photo and ceremoniously left at the abandoned seat.

Works Cited

Alchin, L.K. "Death Rituals." Death Rituals., 16 Dec. 2008. Web. <>.

An explanation of Ancient Egyptian death rituals, particularly embalming and mumiffication, the funeral procession, and the opening of the mouth ceremony. Food was brought to the tomb during the funeral procession and the opening of the mouth ritual was held to revive the mummy's senses so he or she could communicate and partake of food and drink in the next life.

"Ancient Greek Burial Rituals." Antigonemythology. Tangient LLC, 2012. Web. < Greek Burial Rituals>.

"Chinese Funeral Customs." Chinese Funeral Customs., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <>.

Cleisthenes, Neotne. "Death & Burial in Ancient Greece." Ancient Worlds. AncientWorlds LLC, 2002. Web. <>.

Department of Greek and Roman Art. "Death, Burial, and the Afterlife in Ancient Greece". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2003)

"A Druid Funeral Ceremony." Order of Bards, Ovates, and Druids., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

A transcript of a modern druidic funeral.

"Hindu Funeral Rites." The Final Journey. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

"Hindu Rites & Rituals: Death and Funeral." Hinduism. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

Kovach, Laura, and Jayden Robert. "Burial Customs." CSI: Cemetary Scene Investigation. Enhanced Learning Center, 2007. Web.

Egyptian Burial Customs: Belief in the afterlife and that bodies were necessary in it led Egyptians to mummify their dead. The mummification process and funeral rites are described.

Mack, Lauren. "Chinese Funeral Traditions." Chinese Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <>.

Owen, James. "Stonehenge Was Cemetery First and Foremost, Study Says." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

Radiocarbon dating and modern archaeological data suggests that Stonehenge was an ancient burial ground for centuries.

"Rites of Transition: Hindu Death Rituals." - Hinduism Today, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

Shelyn. "Chinese Funeral Customs & Ceremony." Travel & Living Bliss. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

Walker, Stephen. "Celtic Cross History and Symbolism." Celtic Cross., 1996. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.

Stephen Walker, a celtic jewelry maker and craftsman, discusses the symbolism and purported origins of the celtic cross and knotwork.


Images Cited

"Celtic Crosses" Google Images. Google, n.d. Web. <>.

"Death Rituals in Ancient Egypt: A Pathfinder." Death Rituals in Ancient Egypt: A Pathfinder., n.d. Web. <>.

Google Images. Google, n.d. Web. <>.

"Stonehenge" Google Images. Google, n.d. Web. <>.