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RECONSTRUCTION 1864 - 1877. EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: THIS LESSON : DID DEVELOPMENTS IN THE U.S. BETWEEN 1860 AND 1877, PARTICULARLY DURING RECONSTRUCTION, AMOUNT TO A REVOLUTION?

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reconstruction 1864 1877

RECONSTRUCTION1864 - 1877

EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER

slide2

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

THIS LESSON: DID DEVELOPMENTS IN THE U.S. BETWEEN 1860 AND 1877, PARTICULARLY DURING RECONSTRUCTION, AMOUNT TO A REVOLUTION?

(CAUSES, PRINCIPAL FACTS AND FIGURES, EFFECTS OF RECONSTRUCTION)

BROAD: HOW DID THE U.S. BECOME A SUPERPOWER?

AND – WHICH IS THE MOST POWERFUL BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AT WHICH TIMES?

slide3

REVIEW AND BACKGROUND:

  • THE CIVIL WAR WAS THE MOST COSTLY WAR IN TERMS OF LIFE AND LIMB IN U.S. HISTORY
slide5

CIVIL WAR WAS ALSO VERY COSTLY IN $

  • TOTAL DIRECT COST = $6.65 BILLION IN 1860 DOLLARS (≈ 25 BILLION TODAY)
  • DIRECT COSTS ≈ 1.5 TIMES THE 1860 GDP
  • ADDITIONAL INDIRECT COSTS (LOST CONSUMPTION, EFFECTS OF EMANCIPATION AND COLLAPSE OF COTTON EXPORT MARKET) BRING TOTAL TO OVER $10 BILLION (≈ 39 BILLION TODAY)
  • COSTS WERE MUCH HIGHER TO SOUTH THAN TO NORTH:
  • SOUTH WAS DESTROYED (TOTAL WAR)
  • SOUTH LOST INVESTMENT IN SLAVES
  • SOUTHERN COTTON EXPORTS STOPPED DURING WAR AND NEVER COMPLETELY RECOVERED
slide10

KEY QUESTIONS FOR U.S. AS SOON AS IT BEGAN WINNING THE WAR (LATE 1863)

1. How do webring the Southback into the Union?

4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction?

2. How do we rebuild the South after itsdestruction during the war?

3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?

slide11

THE FOUR RECONSTRUCTION THEORIES

CONGRESS – RADICAL REPUBLICANS

PRESIDENTS

VS.

SENATOR CHARLES SUMNER, MASS

REP. THADDEUS

STEVENS, PA.

  • DISPUTE OVER:
  • HOW HARSHLY TO TREAT SOUTH/ RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN
  • IS PRESIDENT OR CONGRESS IN CHARGE?

SENATOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN WADE, OH,

SENATOR HENRY WINTER DAVIS, MD

slide12

1) PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION – TWO ASPECTS:

  • A) STATES HAD NO RIGHT TO SECEDE, SO SOUTHERN STATES DIDN’T – IT’S JUST THAT THEIR LEADERS COMMITTED TREASON
  • WHITE SOUTHERN POPULATION MUST ELECT LOYAL GOVERMENTS
  • B) PRESIDENT IS IN CHARGE OF RECONSTRUCTION (PARDON POWER, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF POWER)
slide13

REMAINING THREE THEORIES ARE CONGRESSIONAL -- ALL SHARE PREMISE THAT CONGRESS IS IN CHARGE

  • 2. FORFEITED RIGHTS – SOUTHERN STATES COULDN’T AND DIDN’T SECEDE – BUT BY REBELLING FORFEITED CERTAIN CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS THAT ONLY CONGRESS COULD RESTORE
  • TO THE EXTENT THAT MOST MEMBERS OF CONGRESS EVER HAVE PRINCIPLED THEORIES, FORFEITED RIGHTS WAS PROBABLY THE DOMINANT ONE
slide14

3. STATE SUICIDE (SUMNER): SOUTHERN STATES HAD “COMMITTED SUICIDE” BY SECEDING AND WERE NOW TERRITORIES FOR WHICH CONGRESS COULD PRESCRIBE LAWS

4. CONQUERED TERRITORIES THEORY: SOUTHERN STATES HAD LOST ALL RIGHTS, WERE LIKE CONQUERED FOREIGN STATES – HAD ONLY SUCH RIGHTS AS WOULD EXIST UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW (STEVENS)

slide15

WARTIME RECONSTRUCTION

  • LINCOLN’S “10% PLAN” – ANNOUNCED IN HIS PROCLAMATION OF AMNESTY, DECEMBER 8, 1863
  • PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION -- HE DID NOT CONSULT CONGRESS, BASED IT ON PRESIDENTIAL PARDON POWER
  • PREMISES:
  • 1) STATES COULD NOT SECEDE, THEREFORE SOUTH HADN’T – BUT ITS LEADERS WERE GUILTY OF TREASON TO THE U.S.
  • 2) THEREFORE SOUTHERN STATED DIDN’T HAVE TO BE READMITTED – THEY JUST NEEDED “LOYAL” GOVERNMENTS
slide16

PROVISIONS:

  • PARDONS TO ALL BUT HIGHEST-RANKING CONFEDERATE MILITARY AND CIVILIAN OFFICERS
  • WHEN 10% OF THE VOTING POPULATION (BASED ON 1860 ELECTION) OF A STATE SWORE LOYALTY OATH TO U.S. AND ESTABLISHED NEW GOVERNMENT, THE STATE COULD SEND REPRESENTATIVES TO CONGRESS & ELECTORAL COLLEGE
  • DID NOT PROPOSE SUFFRAGE FOR FREED SLAVES – LINCOLN THOUGHT THAT WOULD ALIENATE WHITE PRO-NORTHERN ELEMENTS IN SOUTH
slide17

“LINCOLN GOVERNMENTS”

  • DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 1864 “LOYAL” GOVERNMENTS ELECTED BY WHITE CITIZENS (BASED ON 10% OATHS) WERE ESTABLISHED IN THE “WEST:
  • LOUISIANA
  • TENNESSEE
  • ARKANSAS
  • U.S. ARMY “SUPERVISED” VOTING TO INTIMIDATE DEMOCRATIC VOTERS (HAD DONE THIS DURING WAR IN BORDER STATES TOO)
  • THESE GOVERNMENTS WERE WEAK AND SURVIVED ONLY BY BACKING OF U.S. ARMY – BUT RADICAL REPUBLICANS DIDN'T LIKE STATE GOV'TS LOYAL TO LINCOLN
slide18

WADE-DAVIS BILL, JULY 2, 1864

  • BASED ON SUMNER’S STATE SUICIDE THEORY IN SENATE AND STEVENS’ CONQUERED TERRITORIES THEORY IN HOUSE (N.B. HOW INCONSISTENT THESE WERE WITH UNION WAR THEORY THAT SOUTH HAD NO RIGHT TO SECEDE!)
  • SET CONDITIONS FOR SOUTHERN STATES TO BE READMITTED TO UNION:
  • “IRONCLAD OATH” - MAJORITY OF (WHITE) ELECTORATE HAD TO SWEAR THEY HAD NEVER VOLUNTARILY SUPPORTED OR AIDED THE CONFEDERACY -- NOTE THAT THIS WAS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ALMOST ALL ADULT MALES
slide19

STATES MUST HOLD CONVENTIONS AND ADOPT NEW CONSTITUTIONS THAT

  • ABOLISHED SLAVERY (N.B. THAT THIS PROVISION WAS PROBABLY UNCONSTITUTIONAL UNDER DRED SCOTT)
  • REPUDIATED CONFEDERATE WAR DEBT (WOULD FURTHER IMPOVERISH MANY SOUTHERNERS!)
  • LINCOLN POCKET-VETOED THE WADE-DAVIS BILL
  • HIS RE-ELECTION IN 1864 AND CONGRESSIONAL PASSAGE OF 13TH AMENDMENT MOMENTARILY TOOK THE WIND OUT OF RADICAL REPUBLICANS’ SAILS
slide20

LINCOLN’S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS (MARCH 4, 1865) CALLED FOR RECONCILIATION:

  • “With malice toward none, with charity for all, ...let us strive on to finish the work we are in, ...to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”
  • Q: WOULD RECONSTRUCTION BEEN RECONCILIATION IF LINCOLN HAD LIVED?
slide21

13TH AMENDMENT – PASSED CONGRESS JANUARY 1865

“1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”

slide22

FREEDMEN’S BUREAU BILL, MARCH 1865 – PROPOSED BY LINCOLN

  • ESTABLISHED BUREAU OF REFUGEES, FREEDMEN AND ABANDONED LAND, WITH DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (ORIGINALLY FOR ONE YEAR, BUT IT WILL CONTINUE UNTIL 1872)
  • INTENDED TO AID NEWLY FREED SLAVES WITH FOOD AND HOUSING, EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, AND EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS – ALWAYS UNDERFUNDED BY CONGRESS
  • ITS MAIN ROLE WAS AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCY -- ARRANGED SHARECROPPING AND OTHER LABOR CONTRACTS TO GET FREED SLAVES BACK TO WORK ON COTTON PLANTATIONS
slide23

COERCED NEWLY-FREED SLAVE WOMEN TO WORK BY MAKING HUSBANDS SIGN CONTRACTS COMMITTING ENTIRE FAMILY TO WORK

  • ALTHOUGH THE BUREAU DID PROVIDE SOME EMERGENCY RATIONS TO NEWLY FREED SLAVES IN 1865-66, MOST FOOD AID = ALLOWING PLANTERS TO BORROW RATIONS FROM GOV’T TO FEED FREED SLAVES WHO WORKED FOR PLANTERS
  • SET UP A FEW CLINICS – BASICALLY A BUST (SOUTHERN BLACKS RECEIVED POORER MEDICAL CARE AFTER SLAVERY ENDED THAN DURING IT
slide24

DURING RECONSTRUCTION AND UP TO 1960S, MOST SOUTHERN BLACKS WERE SHARECROPPERS (MANY ILLITERATE)

BUT SO WERE MANY WHITE SOUTHERNERS

slide25

SHARECROPPING -- Tenancy & the Crop Lien System

TENANT NEVER GETS OUT OF DEBT AND IS BOUND TO LAND – SERFDOM!

slide26

FREEDMAN’S BUREAU DID BETTER WITH EDUCATION:

  • SET UP ABOUT 1000 SCHOOLS FOR FREED SLAVES 1866 – 76 – TO TEACH WORK ETHIC. 
  • PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR BLACK CHILDREN (VERY POOR SCHOOLS MOSTLY
  • ALSO SUPPORTED ESTABLISHMENT OF BLACK COLLEGES -- BUT MOSTLY A & M, NOT LIBERAL ARTS
slide29

WHITE SOUTHERNERS OPPOSED THE BUREAU

“PLENTY TO EAT AND NOTHING TO DO”

slide31

POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION

  • APRIL, 1865: LEE SURRENDERED, AND LINCOLN WAS ASSASSINATED 
  • WAR ENDED WITH A SOUTHERN PRESIDENT
  • ANDREW JOHNSON OF TENNESSEE – LOYAL TO THE UNION, BUT STILL A SOUTHERNER
  • DEFINITELY THE WRONG TIME FOR A SOUTHERN PRESIDENT!
slide32

President Andrew Johnson

  • Jacksonian Democrat.
  • Anti-Aristocrat.
  • White Supremacist.
  • Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally left the Union.
  • QUOTATION:

“Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”

slide33

PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION UNDER JOHHSON

  • Offered amnesty/ PARDON upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson – AND HE PARDONED 13,500 OF THEM)
  • In new constitutions, they must accept minimumconditions repudiating slavery, secession and CONFEDERATE / state debts.
  • Named provisional governors (MOSTLY FROM PLANTER CLASS) in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions
slide34

NOT PARDONED IN 1865 - JEFFERSON DAVIS WAS ARRESTED AND INDICTED, BUT NEVER TRIED, FOR TREASON -- WENT ON TO BECOME PRESIDENT OF LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

slide35

ALSO NOT PARDONED IN 1865 – ROBERT E. LEE – BUT HE APPLIED FOR PARDON

LEE’S AMNESTY OATH – WHICH GOT “LOST” IN STATE DEPARTMENT FILES

LEE LOST HIS AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP

HE WAS NEVER ARRESTED OR CHARGED WITH ANY CRIME – AFTER THE WAR HE WAS PRESIDENT OF WASHINGTON & LEE UNIVERSITY

slide36

LEE AND HIS FAMILY ALSO LOST THEIR HOME: IN 1864 THE U.S. CONFISCATED THEIR PLANTATION, ARLINGTON, TO MAKE SOLDIERS’ CEMETERY

ARLINGTON HOUSE WAS HOME BUILT BY LEE’S FATHER-IN-LAW

IN 1882, THE SUPREME COURT HELD THAT THE TAKING OF ARLINGTON WAS WRONG, AWARDED IT TO LEE’S GRANDSON, WHO SOLD IT BACK TO U.S. FOR $150,000

IN 1975, PRESIDENT GERALD FORD RESTORED LEE’S U.S. CITIZENSHIP

Q: DID ROBERT E. LEE DESERVE TO LOSE HIS CITIZENSHIP AND PROPERTY?

slide37

EFFECTS OF JOHNSON’S RECONSTRUCTION PLAN:

  • WHITE PLANTERS BACK IN POWER IN SOUTH (DESPITE JOHNSON’S JACKSONIAN CRITICISM OF “ARISTOCRATS”
  • MANY NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS FELL SHORT OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
  • 13TH AMENDMENT WAS RATIFIED, DECEMBER 1865, WITH VOTES OF 7 SOUTHERN STATES (AK. AL.,GA., LA., N.C., S.C., TENN.)
  • BUT FORMER CONFEDERATES STATES ENACTED BLACK CODES, 1865 – 1866, REMINISCENT OF THEIR SLAVE CODES
slide38

BLACK CODES – PURPOSE TO ENSURE CONTINUED STABLE PLANTATION LABOR FORCE -- ESSENTIALLY RE-ESTABLISHED SLAVERY

  • REGULATED LABOR CONTRACTS – REQUIRED MINIMUM ONE-YEAR SERVICE OR WAGES FORFEIT
  • REINFORCED WITH VAGRANCY LAW – UNEMPLOYED BLACKS SOLD INTO “LABOR” FOR ONE YEAR
  • N.B. FREEDMEN’S BUREAU IMPLEMENTED THESE RULES!
  • BANNED BLACKS FROM VOTING, SERVING ON JURIES
  • ALLOWED THEM TO OWN OR RENT PROPERTY ONLY IN RURAL AREAS – TO KEEP THEM ON PLANTATIONS
slide39

THE RESULT: CONGRESS REBELS – RADICALS GAIN SUPPORT

  • January 1866: Congress barred Southern Congressional delegates , created joint Committee on Reconstruction
  • February 1866: johnson vetoed vetoedthe Freedmen’sBureau bill.
  • March 1866: Johnsonvetoed the (TOOTHLESS) 1866 Civil Rights Act.
  • April 1866: Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st veto override in U. S. history!!
  • JULY 1866 – SOUTHERN HOMESTEAD ACT (CHEAP SALES FED. LANDS

-- NOT MUCH SOLD!)

slide41

June, 1966: congress passed the 14th AMENDMENT (ratified july 1868)

  • 1. ALL PERSONS “BORN OR NATURALIZED” IN THE U.S. ARE CITIZENS OF U.S. AND STATE THEY LIVE IN (overrules Dredscott);
  • STATES CANNOT ABRIDGE THE “PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES “ OF U.S. CITIZENS – THIS WAS INTENDED TO APPLY THE BILL OF RIGHTS TO THE STATES
  • STATES CANNOT DEPRIVE “ANY PERSONS” OF “LI FE, LIBERTY OR PROPERTY WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW.”
  • STATES CANNOT DENY “ANY PERSON” THE “EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS.” – INTENDED TO BAN DISCRIMINATION
slide42

2. 3/5 CLAUSE REPEALED. IF ANY STATE DENIES ANY MALE CITIZEN OVER THE AGE OF 21 THE RIGHT TO VOTE (EXCEPT AS PUNISHMENT FOR “REBELLION” AND OTHER CRIMES), THE STATE’S REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS WILL BE REDUCED PROPORTIONATELY

3. NO PERSON WHO HAS ENGAGED IN REBELLION AGAINST THE U.S. CAN HOLD ANY FEDERAL OR STATE OFFICE (UNLESS CONGRESS ALLOWS IT BY 2/3 VOTE)

4. ALL CONFEDERATE DEBTS (INCLUDING STATE DEBTS) ARE “ILLEGAL AND VOID” BUT NOBODY CAN QUESTION THE “VALIDITY” OF THE U.S. PUBLIC DEBT

5. CONGRESS CAN ENFORCE WITH APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION

OF THE FORMER CONFEDERACY, ONLY TENNESSEE RATIFIED THE 14TH AMENDMENT IN 1866

slide43

Johnson the Martyr / Samson

“If my blood is to be shed because I vindicate the Union and the preservation of this government in its original purity and character, let it be shed; let an altar to the Union be erected, and then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon it, and the blood that now warms and animates my existence shall be poured out as a fit libation to the Union.” (February 1866)

slide44

RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION PLAN (CONQUERED TERRITORY THEORY) PLAN: TO BE READMITTED TO THE UNION, FORMER CONFEDERATE STATES MUST

  • RATIFY 13TH AND 14TH AMENDMENTS
  • MAKE NEW CONSTITUTIONS GRANTING SUFFRAGE TO BLACKS AND DISENFRANCHISING “REBELS”
  • MILITARY WOULD ENFORCE
slide45

1866 MID-TERM ELECTIONS: A REFERENDUM ON THE 14TH AMENDMENT AND RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION

  • JOHNSON’S “SWING AROUND THE CIRCLE” – CAMPAIGN TOUR OF EAST, MIDWEST STUMPING FOR DEMOCRATS AND HIS RECONSTRUCTION PROGRAM -- BOMBED

JOHNSON WITH GRANT AT A BANQUET DURING THE SWING AROUND THE CIRCLE

RUMORS SWEPT COUNTRY HE APPEARED DRUNK (HE DID AT 1865 INAUGURATION)

slide46

ELECTION RESULTS (WITH ONLY TENNESSEE AMONG THE FORMER CONFEDERATE STATES ALLOWED TO VOTE!) – REPUBLICANS WON ALL NORTHERN STATES + TENNESSEE AND A 3-1 MAJORITY IN BOTH HOUSES 

  • RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION - FOUR ACTS OF CONGRESS, ALL PASSED OVER JOHNSON’S VETO, MARCH 1877 -- MAJOR SHOWDOWN BETWEEN CONGRESS AND PRESIDENT
  • 1. AN ACT FOR THE MORE EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT OF THE REBEL STATES (AKA “MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION ACY”) – MILITARY OCCUPATION OF THE SOUTH
  • RESTARTED RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE 10 STATES THAT REFUSED TO RATIFY 14TH AMENDMENT
slide47

DIVIDED THEM INTO 5 MILITARY DISTRICTS ADMINISTERED BY U.S. ARMY (DISSOLVED CIVILIAN GOV’T)

slide48

2. AN ACT SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE ACT FOR THE MORE EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT OF THE REBEL STATES

  • AUTHORIZED ARMY TO ENROLL BLACK VOTERS IN SOUTH (EXCEPT TENN.)
  • DISENFRANCHISED MOST ADULT WHITE MEN – IRONCLAD OATH REQUIRED TO VOTE
  • ARMY TO SUPERVISE STATE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS AFTER ELECTIONS BY NEW ELECTORATE
slide49

A MEASURE OF THE BALANCE OF POLITICAL POWER UNDER MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION

IN THESE 7 STATES, FREEDMEN WERE EITHER IN THE MAJORITY OR A CONTROLLING BLOC OF THE ELECTORATE AFTER WHITE DISENFRANCHISEMENT

slide50

3. COMMAND OF THE ARMY ACT: REQUIRED PRESIDENT (GRANT) TO ISSUE RECONSTRUCTION ORDERS THROUGH THE COMMANDING GENERAL OF THE ARMY (GRANT) – EFFECTIVELY REQUIRED ARMY APPROVAL OF PRESIDENT’S ORDERS

  • PROBABLY UNCONSTITUTIONAL – ART. II OF CONSTITUTION MAKES PRESIDENT “COMMANDER IN CHIEF” OF THE ARMED SERVICES
  • 4. TENURE IN OFFICE ACT: PRESIDENT COULD NOT REMOVE CABINET MEMBER OR ANY OTHER OFFICER CONFIRMED BY SENATE, WITHOUT SENATE CONSENT
  • CLEARLY UNCONSTITUTIONAL – CONST. SAYS THESE OFFICERS SERVE “AT PLEASURE” OF PRESIDENT.
slide51

THE IMPEACHMENT OF ANDREW JOHNSON

  • FIRST ATTEMPT – NOVEMBER 1867 – HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE SENT ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT TO FLOOR FOR VOTE – FAILED BY 57 – 108 VOTE
  • BUT JOHNSON WALKED INTO TRAP SET BY COMMAND OF THE ARMY AND TENURE IN OFFICE ACTS
  • TENURE IN OFFICE ACT – INTENDED TO PROTECT RADICAL REPUBLICAN HOLDOVERS FROM LINCOLN’S CABINET AND OTHER FEDERAL OFFICERS
  • RECALL THAT LINCOLN APPOINTED HIS PRINCIPAL RIVALS WITHIN REPUBLICAN PARTY TO HIS CABINET, TO “NEUTRALIZE” OPPOSITION
slide52

FEBRUARY 21, 1868 – JOHNSON FIRED SECRETARY OF WAR EDWIN STANTON

  • STANTON HAD REFUSED TO TRANSMIT TO ARMY JOHNSON ORDER TO REPLACE GENERALS IN SOUTH
  • STANTON ALSO REFUSED TO BE FIRED!
  • STANTON WAS PROBABLY THE MAIN PERSON TENURE IN OFFICE ACT WAS INTENDED TO PROTECT – RABIDLY ANTI-CONFEDERATE – EVEN LINCOLN WANTED TO FIRE HIM IN 1864 (BUT DIDN’T DUE TO POLITICAL CLIMATE)
slide53

3 DAYS LATER, HOUSE PASSED RESOLUTION (126 – 47) FOR IMPEACHMENT OF JOHNSON – DIDN’T EVEN HAVE ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT DRAFTED YET!

  • CONSTITUTION SAYS FEDERAL OFFICERS CAN BE IMPEACHED ONLY FOR “HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS”
  • PRINCIPAL ALLEGATION IN ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT : VIOLATION OF TENURE IN OFFICE ACT
slide54

“THE SITUATION,” HARPERS, MARCH 7, 1868. STANTON AIMS A CANNON MARKED “CONGRESS” AT LORENZO WELLES (JOHNSON’S APPOINTEE AS SECRETARY OF WAR) AND JOHNSON, WHO HOLD SCROLL MARKED “ COUP D’ETAT.” BUT WHO WAS STAGING A COUP?

slide55

The Senate Trial – MARCH 23 – MAY 19, 1868 – A SHOW!

  • JoHNSON WAS ACQUITTED BY 35 – 19 VOTE - one vote short of required 2/3
  • may have established that presidents shouldn’t be impeached for political reasons – until 1998 impeachment of bill clinton
slide56

Effects of military reconstruction

  • BLACKS COULD VOTE FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE SOUTH
slide57

AND SOON WERE OSTENSIBLY GUARANTEED THE RIGHT TO VOTE NATIONWIDE - 15th Amendment

  • PASSED BY CONGRESS 1869, Ratified 1870.
  • “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”
  • Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
slide59

BLACK AND WHITE VOTING DURING RECONSTRUCTION

  • MOST BLACK VOTERS WERE WAR VETERANS – OTHERS POLITICALLY UNPREPARED (MOSTLY ILLITERATE SHARECROPPERS)
slide60

IN MISSISSIPPI, TWO AFRICAN-AMERICANS WERE ELECTED TO THE U.S. SENATE DURING RECONSTRUCTION:

  • HIRAM REVELS (L) – FIRST BLACK SENATOR (SERVED ONLY 1 YEAR, 1870 -71). BLANCHE BRUCE (R), FORMER SLAVE, SERVED 1875-81

THERE HAVE BEEN ONLY 4 OTHER BLACK SENATORS – NONE NOW

slide61

IN ALABAMA, FLORIDA, GEORGIA, LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, NORTH CAROLINA AND SOUTH CAROLINA, 15 BLACK MEN, INCLUDING SOME FORMER SLAVES, WERE ELECTED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES DURING RECONSTRUCTION

BLACK CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION, 1871

MORE AFRICAN-AMERICANS WERE ELECTED TO PUBLIC OFFICE DURING RECONSTRUCTION THAN EVER AFTER

slide63

WHITE SOUTHERN REACTION:

  • KU KLUX KLAN – “INVISIBLE EMPIRE OF THE SOUTH”

FOUNDED 1865, PULASKI, TENN. -- VIGILANTES DURING RECONSTRUCTION

slide64

ALSO TARGETED (BUT NOT FOR LYNCHING)

  • CARPETBAGGERS (NEWLY ARRIVED NORTHERNERS
  • BILLIONS OF DOLLARS SPENT DURING RECONSTRUCTION TO REBUILD SOUTHERN INFRASTRUCTURE  OPPORTUNITY AND CORRUPTION (LIKE HORSE AND CARRIAGE!)
  • SCALAWAGS – SOUTHERNERS WHO COLLABORATED W/ RECONSTRUCTION (FORMER POOR WHITES)
  • CARPETBAGGER & SCALAWAG VOTE HELPED BLACK REPUBLICANS WIN ELECTIONS
slide65

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1868

REPUBLICANS = GENERAL U.S. GRANT AND SCHUYLER COLFAX (PA.)

  • PLATFORM:
  • RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION
  • BUT NORTHERN STATES COULD CHOOSE WHETHER TO LET BLACKS VOTE
  • NO GREENBACK REDEMPTION OF GOVERNMENT BONDS (THAT OLD PAPER $ V. SPECIE DISPUTE!)
  • PRO-IMMIGRATION AND IMMIGRANT RIGHTS
slide66

DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES – HORATIO SEYMOUR (NY) AND FRANCIS P. BLAIR (MO)

  • N.B. – DEMOCRATS DID NOT NOMINATE A SOUTHERNER!
  • PLATFORM:
  • PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION
  • NO BLACK SUFFRAGE
  • OPPOSITE OF REPUBLICANS ON EVERYTHING

IT WAS A RACIST CAMPAIGN – SEE THEIR SONG, NEXT SLIDE

slide67

Raise high the white man’s banner,

Let it float upon the air;

Fling to the breeze the honor’d names

Of Seymour and of Blair,

* * *

No mendicant or negro rule

For men who truly prize

A heritage of glory from

The great, the true, the wise.

Let Grant and Colfax fight beneath

The flag of sable hue;

A nobler banner we will raise

And nobler deeds we’ll do.

slide68

republican propaganda – “Waving the Bloody Shirt”

“THIS IS A WHITE MAN’S GOVERNMENT” – HARPER’S

slide69

1868 Presidential Election

NOTICE THAT DEMOCRATS WON 47% OF POPULAR VOTE!

REPUBLICANS RETAINED CONTROL OF CONGRESS – GAINED 5 SENATE SEATS, BUT LOST 20 HOUSE SEATS

slide70

GRANT ADMINISTRATION

  • HE GOT FOUR ENFORCEMENT ACTS PASSED, 1870 -71 TO CRACK DOWN ON KKK
  • MADE IT A CRIME TO USE VIOLENCE TO PREVENT BLACKS FROM VOTING
  • SUSPENDED HABEAS CORPUS
  • (THIS APPLIED THROUGHOUT COUNTRY – AIMED AS MUCH AT LABOR UNIONS AS AT KKK)
  • DID DAMPEN KLAN ACTIVITY – BUT NEW GROUPS LIKE WHITE LEAGUE AND RED SHIRTS CROPPED UP TO INTIMIDATE BLACK VOTERS
  • DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN SOUTH CALLED SELF “REDEEMERS” – LIKE JESUS
slide72

GRANT ALSO SIGNED CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1876 –

  • TECHNICALLY MAKE IT A CRIME TO:
  • DISCRIMINATE IN PUBLIC CONVEYANCES AND ACCOMMODATIONS (INCLUDING PRIVATE BUSINESSES)
  • BANNED DISCRIMINATION IN JURY SELECTION
  • TOOTHLESS – LACKED FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT MECHANISM (ASSUMED ARMY WOULD ENFORCE – SOMETIMES IT DID)
  • NONETHELESS, SUPREME COURT HELD IT UNCONSTITUTIONAL IN 1888
  • NO MORE CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION UNTIL 1964!
slide73

GRANT’S PRINCIPAL CLAIM TO FAME: KICKING OFF “THE ERA OF GOOD STEALINGS”

  • UNPRECEDENTED GROWTH  UNPRECEDENTED CORRUPTION
  • CrÉditMobilierScandal:
  • FEDERAL $ TO UNION PACIFIC TO CRÉDIT MOBILIER (UP OFFICERS), DISCOUNTED , DISCOUNTED CM STOCK TO CONGRESSMEN (INCLUDING VP) TO COVER UP

JUST ONE OF MANY GRAFT SCANDALS DURING GRANT ADMIN.

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NOTE AGAIN THAT DEMOCRATS GOT > 40% OF POPULAR VOTE

REPUBLICANS STILL CONTROLLED CONGRESS BUT LOST 9 SENATE SEATS, GAINED SEATS IN HOUSE

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NOTE ALSO HOW WELL HORACE GREELEY, RUNNING AS “LIBERAL REPUBLICAN”/DEMOCRAT DID – THIRD PARTY TYPES DO WELL IN TROUBLED TIMES BUT THEY ALSO DELIVER ELECTIONS TO THE OPPOSITION

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PANIC OF 1873 (DEPRESSION – LASTED THROUGH ‘79

  • PART OF WORLDWIDE DEPRESSION TRIGGERED BY GERMANY’S GOING ONTO GOLD, OFF SILVER STANDARD  BANK FAILURES IN EUROPE
  •  U.S. ADOPTED GOLD STANDARD, COINAGE ACT OF 1873  HURT WESTERN MINING INTERESTS, REDUCED MONEY SUPPLY  FARMERS AND OTHER DEBTORS HURT, BOND MARKET TANKS
  • MAJOR BANK FAILS  PANIC, LOANS CALLED,FORECLOSURES, PROPERTY VALUES DROPPED, BUSINESSES FAIL, LAYOFFS (14% UNEMPLOYMENT --
  • SAME OLD, SAME OLD BUT WORSE BECAUSE NOW U.S. HAD MARKET ECONOMY AND BIG BUSINESSES TO FAIL, LIKE RAILROADS (89 DID, ABOUT 20,000 OTHER BUSINESSES TOO)
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EFFECTS:

  • NORTHERNERS NO LONGER WILLING TO PAY ARMY TO PROTECT RIGHTS OF SOUTHERN BLACKS, OR PUNISH THE SOUTH
  • SHIFT REFLECTED IN “COLORED RULE IN A RECONSTRUCTED SOUTHERN STATE.” MARCH, 1874 CARTOON BY THE NORMALLY PRO-RECONSTRUCTION THOMAS NAST IN THE NORMALLY PRO-RECONSTRUCTION HARPER’S
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AND AS ALWAYS IN TWO-PARTY SYSTEM, BAD ECONOMIC TIMES  PARTY IN POWER GETS VOTED OUT OF OFFICE

  • IT’S ALWAYS “THE ECONOMY, STUPID” AS JAMES CARVILLE SAID!
  • MIDTERM ELECTIONS OF 1872 – MAJOR ISSUE = PAPER V. SPECIE CURRENCY:
  • SHOULD GOVERNMENT REDEEM BONDS WITH GREENBACKS? (DEMS SAY YES!)
  • SHOULD IT RETIRE $432 MILLION GREENBACKS ISSUED IN CIVIL WAR AND MAKE ONLY GOLD MONEY? (REPS SAY YES!)
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AND OF COURSE CORRUPTION OF GRANT ADMINISTRATION IS ELECTION ISSUE AND SO IS THE SUSPENSION OF HABEAS CORPUS

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1874 MIDTERM ELECTIONS: DEMOCRATS WON CONTROL OF HOUSE (NEARLY 2:1 MAJORITY). LOST 9 SENATE SEATS, STILL HAD MAJORITY BUT LOST CONTROL (LACKED 2/3 MAJORITY NEEDED TO STOP FILIBUSTER) -- RECONSTRUCTION DOOMED

  • ALL REVENUE BILLS MUST ORIGINATE IN HOUSE!
  • AND THE DEPRESSION IS STILL IN FULL SWING DURING 1876 ELECTIONS (AND REPUBLICANS ARE STILL PERCEIVED AS “CORRUPT” – NOT THAT DEMOCRATS ARE ANY BETTER!)
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“REGIONAL BALANCE” – BLACK VOTE IN SOUTH BALANCES WHITE IMMIGRANT VOTE IN NORTH (THE WHITE” MAN IS A STEREOTYPE OF AN IRISH IMMIGRANT)

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THE CRISIS AND COMPROMISE OF 1877 – THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION

  • TILDEN WON BOTH THE POPULAR VOTE (51%) AND THE MOST UNDISPUTED ELECTORAL VOTES (184 TO 165)
  • BUT 20 VOTES FROM THREE SOUTHERN STATES (FLORIDA, LOUISIANA, SOUTH CAROLINA) WERE NOT CAST BECAUSE DISPUTED – THOSE WERE ONLY STATES STILL UNDER MILITARY RULE
  • TILDEN WON IN THOSE STATES BUT THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF INTIMIDATIONS OF REPUBLICAN VOTERS AND FRAUD
  • * EXAMPLE = DEMOCRATIC BALLOTS WITH PICTURES OF LINCOLN TO TRICK ILLITERATE VOTERS
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REPUBLICAN OFFICIALS IN THOSE STATES SIMPLY IGNORED THE ELECTION RESULTS AND CERTIFIED HAYES AS THE WINNER – SO HAYES HAD ONE-VOTE EDGE IN ELECTORAL COLLEGE’

  • LED TO MAJOR CRISIS – DEMOCRATS CRIED FOUL, REFUSED TO ALLOW SENATE TO COUNT VOTES (PER CONSTITUTION), GRANT CALLED OUT ARMY TO PROTECT D.C.
  • CONGRESS PASSED LAW ESTABLISHING 15-MAN SPECIAL COMMISSION (5 FROM EACH HOUSE + 5 SUPREME COURT JUSTICES) TO DECIDE WHO WON IN THE THREE STATES
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COMMISSION HAD 1-VOTE REPUBLICAN MAJORITY – IT WAS BOUND TO AWARD ELECTION TO HAYES – BUT IT HAD TO GIVE DEMOCRATS SOMETHING

  • COMPROMISE OF 1877 AKA “THE CORRUPT BARGAIN”
  • HAYES WOULD BE PRESIDENT, BUT WOULD WITHDRAW ARMY FROM SOUTH
  • TRANSCONTINENTAL RR. WOULD TAKE “SOUTHERN” ROUTE (REALLY LOWER MIDWESTERN)
  • POSTMASTER GENERAL WOULD BE SOUTHERN DEMOCRAT
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THE NATION WAS REUNITED – AT THE EXPENSE OF

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS
  • REDEEMER DEMOCRATS SWEPT INTO OFFICE IN SOUTH AND REVOKED BLACK VOTING RIGHTS
  • LITERACY TESTS
  • POLL TAXES
  • GRANDFATHER CLAUSES
  • VIOLENCE AND INTIMIDATION
  • (MANY NORTHERN STATES DID THE SAME!)
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WITHIN A DECADE ALL SOUTHERN STATES HAD “JIM CROW” LAWS – APARTHEID – LEGALLY MANDATED RACIAL SEGREGATION

  • NORTHERN STATES ACHIEVED THE ALMOST SAME RESULT THROUGH RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS IN HOUSE DEEDS BARRING SALE TO “NEGROES.”
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RESULTS OF RECONSTRUCTION:

  • SLAVERY ABOLISHED, BUT ON THE WHOLE, MOST SOUTHERN BLACKS WOUND UP WITH NO MORE CIVIL RIGHTS THAN THEY HAD UNDER SLAVERY
  • THE “SOLID SOUTH” -- SOUTH VOTED SOLIDLY DEMOCRATIC UNTIL 1966 (SWITCHED OVER CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964)
  • THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WAS CLEARLY SOVEREIGN – AND CONGRESS MORE POWERFUL THAN EVER BEFORE
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AND THE SOUTH STILL HADN’T RECOVERED FROM THE CIVIL WAR

  • SOUTH LOCKED IN CYCLE OF POVERTY THAT LASTED UNTIL RECENTLY (AND STILL PERSISTS IN STATES LIKE MISSISSIPPI), WHILE REST OF THE COUNTRY SURGED AHEAD (INDUSTRIALIZATION, SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST)
  • BY 1900, SOUTHERN PER CAPITA INCOME WAS 2/3 THE NATIONAL LEVEL AND SOUTHERN ECONOMY (STILL MOSTLY COTTON) WAS GROWING AT ½ THE RATE OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
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THE NATION WAS REUNITED, BUT NORTH-SOUTH DIVISION AND RESENTMENTS PERSISTED (AND STILL DO TO SOME EXTENT

  • AND STILL – NOTHING IN THE CONSTITUTION SAYS THAT STATES CANNOT SECEDE -- OR EVEN THAT FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS TOP SOVEREIGN!