RECONSTRUCTION 1865 - 1877. Presidents of the United States. George Washington; Federalist (1788) John Adams; Federalist (1796) Thomas Jefferson; Democratic-Republican (1800) James Madison; Democratic-Republican (1808) James Monroe; Democratic-Republican (1816)
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Between 1865 and 1877, the federal government carried out a program to repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union.
This program was known as Reconstruction
1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.
2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations.
3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
Denied pardons to officers and anyone who had killed African American war prisoners.
Permitted each state to create a new constitution after 10 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance.
Offered pardons to Southerners who swore allegiance.
States could then hold elections and rejoin the Union.
1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land.
6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord.
2. Landowners need laborers and have no money to pay laborers.
4. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing, food or local store.
1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start in life. This was the first major relief agency in United States history.
Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
During Radical Reconstruction, the Republican Party was a mixture of people who had little in common except a desire to prosper in the postwar South. This bloc of voters included freedmen and two other groups: carpetbaggers and scalawags.
Republican “Southern Strategy”
*Disputed Electoral votes
369 total electoral votes, need 185to win.
Rutherford B. HayesSamuel Tilden
There were five main factors that contributed to the end of Reconstruction.
Union is restored.
Many white southerners bitter towards US govt & Republicans.
South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in the North.
The South is slow to industrialize.
14th and 15th amendments guarantee Blacks the rights of citizenship, equal protection under the law, and suffrage.
After US troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorist organizations effectively deny Blacks the right to vote.
Freedmen’s Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling.
Many black and white southerners remain caught in a cycle of poverty.
Racist attitudes toward African Americans continue, in both the South and the North.
Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education.Successes and Failures of Reconstruction