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EfS Grammar I: Two Present Tenses – Simple and Continuous. Explaining how things work and describing what is happening. Simple - Affirmative. I you he/she/it we they. to be am are is are are. to have got have got have got has got have got have got. to work work work works work

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efs grammar i two present tenses simple and continuous

EfS Grammar I:Two Present Tenses – Simple and Continuous

Explaining how things work and describing what is happening.

simple affirmative
Simple - Affirmative

Iyouhe/she/itwethey

to be

am

are

is

are

are

to have got

have got

have got

has got

have got

have got

to work

work

work

works

work

work

"One s" rule: The third person is either plural (a noun would end in "-s") or the verb ends with "-s".

simple negative
Simple - Negative

Iyouhe/she/itwethey

to be

am not

are not

is not

are not

are not

to have got

have not got

have not got

has not got

have not got

have not got

to work

do not work

do notwork

does notwork

do notwork

do notwork

"One s" rule: Where an "s" is added, it is added to the auxiliary verb (be, have, do).

simple interrogative
Simple - Interrogative

to be

am I?

are you?

is he?

are we?

are they?

to have got

have I got?

have you got?

has she got?

have we got?

have they got?

to work

do I work?

do youwork?

does hework?

do wework?

do theywork?

"One s" rule:"s" is added to the auxiliary verb. Subject and first verb are inverted.

spelling rules
Spelling rules
  • When adding an "s" to the verb:
  • Normallyjust add -s
  • -s, -z, -sh, -ch, -o word endingsadd -es
  • -y word endingconsonant –y changes to –iesvowel –y goes to -ys
continuous all forms
Continuous – All Forms

Affirmative (Negative)

I am (not) doing

you are (not) doing

he/she/it is (not) doing

we are (not) doing

they are (not) doing

Interrogative

am I doing?

are you doing?

is he/she/it doing?

are we doing?

are they doing?

Form: to be + present participle (-ing form)

present participle spelling
Present Participle - Spelling

Present participles are formed by adding -ing

  • The final consonant may be doubled:Mainly in one-syllable verbs ending with consonant-vowel-consonant, e.g.stop – stopping
  • Words ending in –ie:-ie changes to –y, e.g. lie – lying
  • Words ending in –e:final –e is dropped, e.g. make - making
simple and continuous use
Simple and Continuous - Use
  • Simple is used:
  • to explain something in an expository text;
  • to express repeatedness of an action;
  • to express completedness of an action;
  • with verbs of state.

Continuous is used:

  • to express incompleteness of an action;
  • and therefore sometimes temporariness.
states and actions
States and Actions

Some verbs may be either verbs of state or verbs of action and their meaning changes accordingly:

  • to see (a state): is an involuntary action.
  • to see someone (an action): is to meet that person and talk to him/her.
  • to feel (a state) is an emotion.
  • to feel something (an action) is to move your fingers over an object.
examples in technical texts
Examples in Technical Texts

In describing the characteristics of something (typifying) we use the present simple e.g.:

  • "Organisms play an important role in the water cycle."
  • "These nitrogen-fixing bacteria come in three forms."

The present continuous is used only rarely, e.g.:

  • "The main concepts we are trying to get across in this section [...]"

McShaffrey (2006)

what is wrong with
What is wrong with …?

Graham is speaking 5 languages.

What??? All at the same time?

The River Thames is flowing into the North Sea.

And tomorrow into the Irish Sea...

I take tennis lessons this summer.

"This summer" suggests that the action is incomplete or temporary.

reference
Reference

McShaffrey, Dave (2006): Environmental Biology – Ecosystems. http://www.marietta.edu/ ~biol/102/ecosystem.html,accessed April 5, 2009.

Alternative citation style: marietta.edu