Events of 1968 • March, LBJ Announces he wont seek partys nomination for re-election. • April, MLK JR assassinated in Memphis, TN • May, Robert F. Kennedy (JFK’s lil bro) takes lead candidate role for Dems. • June, RFK assassinated in California • August, Hubert Humphrey v Richard Nixon • August, Hippies cause ruckus at DNC (Cops beat em down) • Nov, Nixon barely beats Humphrey (becomes paranoid)
Going to the moon • Apollo 1 fire in 1967 kills 3 astronauts. • Moon trip looks doubtful. • Apollo program rebounds, orbits the moon in 1968. • Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong becomes the first man on the moon on July 20, 1969. • Meets JFK’s proclamation. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtwSgvstl8c • “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
The Hippies (BOOOO!) Spurred by Anti-Vietnam War protests Mainly college students Think they're are going to change the world But they don’t, (Mr Waters Rant) Used Peaceful protests to get points across Overall just horrible disgusting creates of the 1960s/70s Famous concert: Woodstock
I. The Watergate Scandal (June 1972) • The Crime: What? Watergate Break-in. 1. An apartment complex & convention center 2. Home of the Democrat National Committee headquarters
3. Why? To photograph secret documents and place wiretaps on office phones • Nixon and his men feared losing. • Recall: Checkers Speech; 1960 loss to JFK; Barely beating Humphrey in 1968.
4. Who? (The Plumbers) • At 2:30 a.m., June 17 1972, 5 men broke into the Watergate and were caught. • leader = James McCord (former CIA agent) • worked for Committee to Reelect the Pres. (CREP) headed by John Mitchell (former Nixon Attorney Gen.) James W. McCord Jr. CIA Agent CRP Member Bernard Barker Frank Sturgis Virgilio Gonzalez John Mitchell Head of CRP Eugenio Martinez
D. The Cover-Up Unravels 1. Nov. 1972, Nixon is reelected in a landslide over George McGovern.
E. Reactions? 1. April 1973, Nixon tries to handle the situation himself • Gets members of his staff to resign • Calls for an independent investigation
President Jimmy Carter Ford had no answer for stagflation or the gas crisis & was challenged by Georgia Democrat Jimmy Carter in the 1976 election Carter ran as an “outsider” who played no part in Vietnam, Watergate, or the recession
4. Spiro Agnew (Nixon’s VP) resigns • Scandal separate from Watergate • Nixon appoints Gerald Ford as Vice President • Congress approves this
5. March 1974, 7 of Nixon’s aides are charged with conspiracy, obstruction of justice and perjury. President Nixon is labeled an “unindicted co-conspirator” by the grand jury, on a 19-0 vote.
G. The Final Days 1. Nixon makes a number of TV appearances claiming he is innocent • “I AM NOT A CROOK” 2. Releases edited transcripts of the audio tapes • Not enough for investigators • Nixon still refuses to give up unedited tapes 3. July 1974, SC Ruling—US v. Nixon • Unedited tapes must be submitted • They proved Nixon’s involvement in the cover up
4. Congress begins filing paperwork for impeachment proceedings 5. Aug., 8 1974, Nixon resigns before a vote can happen • 1st and only time in the history of the country
Ford becomes president 1974-76 People don’t have a lot of confidence in him Not elected, selected Pardons Nixon: Wants to move forward Section 3: The Ford and Carter Years
Republican candidate: Ford Demo: Carter Gov of Georgia Peanut farmer Carter wins election Bottom line: People want change 1976 Election
Carter had to deal with bad energy crisis Simple solution: use less foreign oil How to do that: National Energy Act Tax gas guzzling cars Discourage people from buying them Encourage Oil production Encourage development of alternative energy Jimmy Carter
Carter & Foreign Policy Iranians seized the U.S. embassy & captured 52 American hostages (Iranian Hostage Crisis) Carter tried negotiation, economic threats, & a rescue mission to return the hostages but all efforts failed The 52 hostages were held for 444 days
End of Carter • Carter ended his admin. by fighting for his party’s nomination. • Ted Kennedy was from Massachusetts and more in line with liberalism. • Kennedy, however, had some of his own problems. • Carter and Kennedy beat each other up trying to get the Dem. nomination.
Ronald Reagan • Reagan started as a sports broadcaster in Iowa in the 30’s. • He moved to L.A. and made a name for himself as a B-movie actor. • Reagan became Pres. of the Screen Actors Guild during the McCarthy era. • Reagan went from being a Dem to a Rep. in the 50’s.
Election of 1980 • Carter was known as a good man but lacked progress domestically and in foreign affairs. • Interest rates were through the roof and we had double-digit inflation. • Oil prices skyrocketed, but there was little Carter to do about that. • Iran held American hostages and Carter tried to negotiate. • Reagan’s election to lose.
Election of 1980 • Reagan was an actor and appealed to most Americans in debates. • He called for smaller government and tougher foreign policy. • He thought Americans paid too much in taxes and sought to decrease the budget. • Although it was Reagan’s election to lose, he didn’t.
Rise of the Right • Conservative movement started with Barry Goldwater’s Republican Nomination in 1964. AuH2O • “Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.” • Lost big time but laid the framework for Reagan. • Religious Right- Christian Conservatives fueled by the Hippies (boo!) and Roe v Wade. • Roe v Wade- legalized abortion until viability (24-28 weeks).
Conservative Beliefs • Small government • Personal Freedoms • Constitutional Rights • Family Values • Laissez-Faire Economy
Hinkley • On March 30, 1981, Ronald Reagan was shot while leaving a meeting. • John Hinkley, a deranged young man, wanted the attention of Jodie Foster. • Reagan recovered rapidly and was able to use this as weight with the American people. • The Dems would be on the run for the next 6 or 7 years. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-cKPe7E-wI
Reaganomics • Reagan wanted to cut the budget and lower taxes. • The Senate backed him b/c they were Rep. • The House was Dem. majority, but Reagan was able to get them on his side. • Dem leadership was befuddled with his abilities. • Deep cuts were made in the welfare state.
Reagan’s Agenda • Domestic policy centered on trying to cut taxes and cut the budget. • He also wanted to reduce government control of business. • Reduced restriction would give business a chance to expand. • Also a return to social conservatism.
U.S. vs. Evil Empire • Reagan came into office with idea that communism would be defeated. • Mikhail Gorbachev was his chief nemesis. • Gorby sought a new openness with the world – Glasnost • 1987 – INF Treaty limited intermediate nuclear warheads aimed at each other. • Reagan continued to push funding for Star Wars. (STI)
Iran-Contra • In his second term, Democrats got control of Senate and the sparks began. • Charges were made that we traded arms w/ Iran to get some hostages back. • Reagan denied. • Ollie North testified and the nation watched. • In the end, Sec. Weinberger was pardoned before trial.
Reagan’s Policies • Reagan drove up the deficit way up with defense spending. • However, taxes were lowered twice and spending jumped. • Trade deficit also grew with Japan. • He appointed several judges to S.C. • Some conservative, some not.
Reagan’s Legacy • Reagan is usually given the credit for destroying the USSR. • He outspent the Evil Empire and the economy collapsed. • He restored a sense of pride in America – he was optimistic. • Some deride the defense spending and deficit, but most see him as one of the best.
Bush Era • Reagan’s VP easily defeated Dukakis in 1988. • He had served in WWII, Congress, State Dept., U.N., and CIA. • Oversaw dismantling of USSR. • Also put together a coalition to oust Iraqis from Kuwait. • Will be remembered for Desert Storm.
Cold War Ends • E. Germany, Czech, Poland and Romania all sought freedom. • In 1989, the Berlin Wall was toppled. • The Soviet Union was crumbling. • Freedom had a cost. • Fighting broke out in many of the old Soviet republics. • Transition to democracy was slow.
Bush I @ Home • Bush enjoyed immense popularity after Gulf War. • But, the economy was slowing and our debt growing. • A conservative, Bush appt. Clarence Thomas to S.C. • Thomas was opposed by liberals – even NAACP. • Barely confirmed.
Perot- The Spoiler • Ross Perot • 3rd Party Candidate from Texas. • Fiscally Conservative against Nafta • NAFTA • North American Free Trade Agreement • US, Canada, Mexico trade without tariffs on each other. • Perot said NAFTA would cause a “giant sucking sound” of jobs heading south to Mexico. • Why? Cheaper labor in Mexico, and now no taxes. • Ross Perot was right!
Election Outcome • Clinton won the election with an electoral landslide even though he got <50% of votes • Ross Perot got no electoral votes, but drew crucial votes from Bush. • Pres. Clinton surrounded himself with allies and friends in Washington. • He also bragged that the voters were getting 2 for 1 – his wife Hillary.
Early Problems • After 12 years of conservative Presidents, Clinton moved quickly • He miscalculated by trying to integrate gays into military. • His biggest asset became a liability. • He appointed his wife to revamp America’s health care system. • It flopped.
More Problems • There was an attack on the World Trade Centers in 1993. • Also in 1993, a standoff between ATF and cult in Waco, TX. • Dozens of men, women and children were killed. • There was an attack on a fed. building in Okla. City in 1995. • Anti-government attitudes grew.
Bright Spot • Although Clinton struggled early, the economy grew. • Tech stocks rallied in the 90’s and boomed. • Middle class America also did very well. • The strong economy would prove to be his main legacy.
Scandal • Clinton had 2 extra-marital affair scandals. • One during his term with White House aid, Monica Lewinsky. • Famous quote “I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky.” • Is tried for impeachment. • House convicts, Senate acquits. • Only the 2nd president in US History to be impeached. • (A. Johnson 1867) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBe_guezGGc
Bad Start • Winner in the election wasn’t determined until late December. • Florida had at least two recounts. • The Florida Supreme Court overturned election results. • US Supreme Court overturned the FL Supreme Court. • George W. Bush was declared the winner.
Bush Policy • Tried to reach across the aisle. • Two key pieces of legislation: • Prescription Drug Part D for Medicare • No Child Left Behind – Education • Was characterized as a buffoon, though he held degrees from both Harvard and Yale. • Everything changed on September 11, 2001.
September 11, 2001 • President Bush was in FL reading to children. • No one knew exactly what happened. • Within 24 hours, it was determined to be terrorists at fault. • Al-Quada was ID’d as the perpetrator.
Bush Doctrine • Shortly after 9/11 attack, Congress authorized force in Afghanistan. • Saddam Hussein (Iraq) had been defying terms of peace agreement from Gulf War. • Congress authorized force in Iraq. • Bush declared that terrorists and states that sponsor them are at war with U.S.
Bush’s Final Years • Critics said he had lied us into a war. • Economy continued to grow, but problems loomed. • 2 active wars and a devastating economy crippled his final year. • Very low poll numbers as he left office.