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AP US History “1980 to Present”. Unit12. Focus on While Reading:. The Conservatism of the Reagan Administration, featuring increased Defense Spending and decreased spending on Social Programs. U.S. Military intervention in the Post-Cold War period, with special emphasis on the Middle East.

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AP US History “1980 to Present”


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    1. AP US History “1980 to Present” Unit12

    2. Focus on While Reading: • The Conservatism of the Reagan Administration, featuring increased Defense Spending and decreased spending on Social Programs. • U.S. Military intervention in the Post-Cold War period, with special emphasis on the Middle East. • How the mid-term elections of 1994 shaped the Clinton Presidency and the impact of the “Contract for America”. • The impact of the War on Terror at home and abroad. • The Historic Presidency of Barack Obama and the issues facing the nation as we move forward into the future.

    3. Introduction to “1980s to Present”: • The Cold War was coming to an end. Billions of dollars had been spent and millions of lives lost in an ideological struggle between democracy and dictatorship since the end of World War II. • We hoped that the end of the Cold War would bring peace, but every President that followed the fall of the Soviet Union had to use the military and the resources of the nation to intervene militarily in some foreign conflict. • The end of the Twentieth Century would find us once again in a struggle between traditional values and modern culture. • The Attacks on 9/11 ushered in an awareness of a new threat: The War on Terror.

    4. Unit 12.1: The Presidency of Ronald Reagan. • What cultural factors became the foundation of Reagan Conservatism? • What were the main tenets of Reaganomics and what impact did these policies have on Reagan’s successor? • What major events shaped Reagan’s foreign policy and how did his actions lead to the end of the Cold War?

    5. Unit 12.1: The Presidency of Ronald Reagan. • What cultural factors became the foundation of Reagan Conservatism? • 1940s and 1950s: Ronald Reagan was a popular actor who at one point served as the President of the Screen Actors’ Guild (The Actors’ Union). • 1966: Reagan became the Conservative Governor of California. • 1976: Reagan ran as Gerald Ford’s Vice President against Jimmy Carter. • 1980: Reagan won a landslide victory over Carter signaling a major change in the direction of the nation both in foreign policy and on domestic issues. • Reagan’s popularity was fed by two emerging political groups: • The Religious Right (The Moral Majority) • The New Right: A more conservative wing of the Republican Party that appealed to corporations. • Central themes to Reagan’s conservative agenda included: • A renewed toughness in the approach to the Soviet Union: Reagan denounced the SALT Treaties and increased defense spending. • “Limiting” the size of the Federal Bureaucracy: Reagan froze new government hires, cut funding to social programs, and “reformed” welfare. • Opposition to Abortion Rights granted in Roe v. Wade: Reagan cut Medicaid funding for abortions and supported other limits on abortion rights. • Opposition to Affirmative Action: Limits on Affirmative Action programs began in 1978 in when the decision in Bakke v. Regents of the University of California ruled that Affirmative Action represented “reverse discrimination” in a 5 to 4 vote.

    6. Unit 12.1: The Presidency of Ronald Reagan. • What were the main tenets of Reaganomics and what impact did these policies have on Reagan’s successor? • Part of Reagan’s pledge to “shrink” the Federal Government was to persuade Congress to pass smaller and smaller budgets with cuts mainly in social programs. • Reagan’s tax reforms included deregulation of business and tax cuts intended to increase capital investment. • The basis of Reagan’s “Supply-Side Economics” was that as the wealthy became wealthier they would pour more money into the economy in the form of new businesses and more jobs. This would translate to increased consumerism and decreased unemployment. Some referred to this theory as “Trickle Down Economics”. • Critics charged that the decreased Federal Revenue caused by Reagan’s tax cuts forced cuts to vital domestic programs like welfare, the Arts, urban renewal, and education. • Reagan also supported a concept of “New Federalism” where Federal programs would be slashed and money sent to individual states to increase the power of state governments. • On top of these measures, the Reagan administration support massive increases in defense spending in an effort to destroy the economy of the Soviet Union. • Reagan’s personality, tough stand in the Cold War, and the “booming” economy led some Democrats to defect and support the Republican Reagan. These became known as the “Reagan Democrats” and contributed heavily to his reelection in 1984.

    7. Unit 12.1: The Presidency of Ronald Reagan. • What major events shaped Reagan’s foreign policy and how did his actions lead to the end of the Cold War? • Reagan refocused the Cold War on the “Evil Empire” with intent to break the economy of the Soviet Union and cause its collapse. • Reagan used an arms buildup and economic sanctions as leverage against the Soviets. By 1984 U.S./Soviet Relations hit an all-time low, but things would soon change as it became clear that the Soviets could not keep up this spending much longer. • Reagan resumed the policy of Containment in dealing with the spread of Communism in Latin America and Asia. • Reagan provided aid to anticommunist rebels (Contras) in Nicaragua, toppled a Communist regime in the Caribbean Island of Grenada, and sent U.S. Marines to Lebanon (although they were withdrawn after a terrorist attack on a Marine barracks killed hundreds). • Reagan authorized attacks on nations that sponsored terrorism such as Libya and provided aid to anticommunist rebels (Mujahadin) fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan. • In 1985, the Reform-minded Mikhail Gorbachev became Soviet Premier and implemented new democratic and capitalist reforms (glasnost and perestroika). • 1988 began a series of events that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. • Gorbachev pulled Soviet troops out of the Soviet Bloc nations and then democratic revolutions toppled all of the Eastern European communist regimes. • The Berlin Wall was torn down and Germany was reunified. • The Soviet Republics declared their independence and the Soviet Union was disbanded.

    8. Unit 12.2: The Presidency of George H.W. Bush • Why have many historians called George H.W. Bush a “foreign policy” President? • What major events shaped the foreign policy of George H.W. Bush? • What domestic events caused George H.W. Bush to fall from a 90% approval rating to losing his reelection bid? What role did an independent candidate play in that election?

    9. Unit 12.2: The Presidency of George H.W. Bush • Why have many historians called George H.W. Bush a “foreign policy” President? • Having served in the Military and been head of the CIA, President George H.W. Bush seemed very much at home in foreign policy matters. • Bush came to the Presidency primarily on the popularity of Ronald Reagan for whom he had served as Vice President for eight years. However, he would be the one that would have to deal with many of the scandals and the economic turmoil that would stem from Reaganomics. • Bush’s skills in foreign affairs would serve him well in leading the Persian Gulf War and overseeing the collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent end of the Cold War.

    10. Unit 12.2: The Presidency of George H.W. Bush • What major events shaped the foreign policy of George H.W. Bush? • As the Cold War came to an end, George H.W. Bush developed a friendly relationship with Russian President Boris Yeltsin. The two would negotiate both the START I and START II Treaties significantly reducing both nations nuclear arms. • In 1991, Bush skillfully pieced together an international coalition to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation (Operation Desert Storm). The only downside was that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was left in power and would have to be dealt with later by both President Bill Clinton and President George W. Bush. • Bush authorized U.S. Marines to invade Panama to arrest Panamanian President Manuel Noriega, whom the U.S. charged and convicted of being part of an international drug trafficking ring.

    11. Unit 12.2: The Presidency of George H.W. Bush • What domestic events caused George H.W. Bush to fall from a 90% approval rating to losing his reelection bid? What role did an independent candidate play in that election? • The successful liberation of Kuwait and the skillful leadership displayed by George H.W. Bush in the Persian Gulf War gained the President an near 90% approval rating, yet he did not win reelection. (HOW!) • In 1991 the U.S. economy began to sink into recession and a skillful politician, Bill Clinton, made sure that the nation remained focused on that during the 1992 campaign (“it’s the economy stupid”). • The fatal blow for George H.W. Bush was a campaign promise he could not fulfill, “Read my lips, no new taxes”. As the national deficit skyrocketed the Democratic Congress passed new tax legislation that Bush had no choice but to sign. The Democrats then hammered him on this “broken promise” throughout the reelection campaign. • Adding to Bush’s problems was the collapse of the Savings and Loan industry, which prompted a $300 Billion bail out that the taxpayers would be responsible for. Much of this catastrophe was actually the fault or Reagan’s policies. • Economic problems combined with the skillful campaigning of a popular, young, energetic Governor of Arkansas (Bill Clinton) created a tight race in 1992. • Add into the mix Independent Billionaire H.Ross Perot (most of who’s support came from Republicans) who won 10% of the vote in 1992 and the Bush presidency was doomed. Not a great communicator, like Reagan had been, Bush was often overshadowed by Clinton and the flamboyant Perot.

    12. Unit 12.3: The Presidency of Bill Clinton • What major domestic and economic issues defined the Clinton Presidency? • What major events shaped the foreign policy of Bill Clinton? • What role did scandal play in the administration of Bill Clinton, why did he seem to be immune from it all?

    13. Unit 12.3: The Presidency of Bill Clinton • What major domestic and economic issues defined the Clinton Presidency? • Bill Clinton pioneered what became known as the New Democrat. Knowing that the Democrat Party had controlled the White House for only 4 of the past 24 years (and that four was the inept Carter Administration), Clinton reshaped the party into a more conservative path. Clinton supported anti-crime legislation, strong national defense, and economic policies friendly to the business sector (all policies previously championed by Republicans, but he also championed various social programs). • Clinton’s presidency actually began with implementing a “liberal agenda”: • Clinton hoped for a ban on discrimination against homosexuals in the U.S. Military, but had to settle for a compromise (don’t ask don’t tell). • Driven heavily by First Lady Hillary Clinton, Bill Clinton pushed for Universal Health Care. This effort failed in Congress • He was able to get the Family and Medical Leave Act passed in 1993 which required employers to grant unpaid medical leave in cases of medical emergency.

    14. Unit 12.3: The Presidency of Bill Clinton • What major domestic and economic issues defined the Clinton Presidency? • The mid-term election in 1994 sent a clear message to Bill Clinton that he needed to re-direct his presidency or he may fail in reelection (Republicans, led by Newt Gingrich, won both houses of Congress in 1994). • Working closely with House Republicans on what was known as the “Contract for America” Clinton was able to make significant economic gains: • By 1998 Clinton and the Congressional Republicans had created a massive budget surplus. • Clinton became the first President to balance the budget in 30 years. • The economic gains of the Clinton administration signaled the end of the Reagan Recession and increased Bill Clinton’s popularity immensely, a factor that makes him extremely important to the Democrat Party still today. • President Clinton singed The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) making Mexico and Canada our two biggest trading partners. Critics argued that it led to a mass migration of industrial jobs out of the United States. • President Clinton supported an economic policy based on “Globalization” and supported the formation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which sparked massive protests by those that saw the organization creating environmental degradation and poverty wages. • Clinton also signed agreements that made China a vital trading partner.

    15. Unit 12.3: The Presidency of Bill Clinton • What major domestic and economic issues defined the Clinton Presidency? • Other Domestic events included: • In 1994 Congress signed into law the Brady Bill, which required background checks for gun purchases and banned certain assault rifles. • Opponents of Gun Control typically argue that it only limits the freedom of law-abiding citizens. Criminals, they argue, will find a way to get guns and commit violent acts. • These critics often argue that the best approach is increased enforcement of laws already in place. • Many charge that the safest environment is one in which law-abiding, experienced, trained citizens carry concealed weapons. • Americans experienced violent acts never witnessed in our country before: • Federal Agents stormed the compound of a Religious Cult (The Branch Davidians) in Waco, Texas resulting in the burning of the Compound and deaths of many of its members. • The bombing of a Federal Building in Oklahoma City by a domestic terrorist (Timothy McVeigh) killed 168 people. • Two heavily armed students carried out a murderous rampage in Columbine High School in Colorado • Clinton appeased Congressional Republicans by signing into law a “Welfare to Work” Law that severely limited welfare benefits. • A feud between Clinton and the Republicans over the Budget resulted in a temporary government shutdown. • The Clinton Presidency would be ravaged by numerous scandals.

    16. Unit 12.3: The Presidency of Bill Clinton • What major events shaped the foreign policy of Bill Clinton? • Clinton sent Army Rangers to support humanitarian aid efforts in Somalia with a side mission of arresting local warlords that were driving the atrocious conditions in that nation. • During a raid to arrest two key warlords a Blackhawk Helicopter was shot down, followed by two more, in the Somali Capitol of Mogadishu. • The ensuing battle between Army Rangers, Al Qaeda warriors, and local gangs caused Clinton to pull U.S. forces from the region. • The withdrawal of U.S. forces from the region played a major role in U.S. inaction during the mass murders in Rwanda and the Sudan later. • Clinton sent U.S. Marines into Haiti to restore a democratically elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide who had been toppled by a military coup. • As part of a NATO mission, Clinton authorized a massive Air War and sent U.S. troops as part of peacekeeping forces to stop “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia. • In Iraq, Saddam Hussein launched a reprisal against groups that had supported the Coalition’s liberation of Kuwait (Kurds in the North and Shi’ah in the South). To stop atrocities committed against these groups Clinton ordered and maintained a “No-Fly Zone” over the north and south of Iraq. • Also in Iraq, Clinton authorized Air raids on Iraqi nuclear cites after Hussein refused to cooperate with UN inspectors.

    17. Unit 12.3: The Presidency of Bill Clinton • What role did scandal play in the administration of Bill Clinton, why did he seem to be immune from it all? • As Governor of Arkansas, Bill Clinton had been the center of allegations that he used the State Police inappropriately in several alleged adulterous affairs. • During his Presidency several women came forward and reported having affairs with then-Governor Clinton. • Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary were implicated in a Real Estate scandal (Whitewater) for which they were never prosecuted (never sufficient evidence, however their partners in the deal, the McDougals were prosecuted and convicted of crimes related to the deal) • In 1999, after a lengthy investigation by Kenneth Starr (Special Prosecutor) showed that Bill Clinton had perjured himself when testifying about an affair with a young White House intern Monica Lewinsky. • Clinton supporters charged that a partisan Special Prosecutor and a Republican-controlled House were making “mountains out of molehills” and trivialized the adulterous activities of the President. • The case shined a light on scandalous behavior in Washington and adulterous affairs by Republican members of Congress further aggravated the public, deflecting criticism of the President. • The House of Representatives drew up articles of impeachment, but the case failed in the Senate. • Clinton’s popularity was hardly damaged by the proceedings. • He able to skillfully trivialize the matter by questioning “what constituted sex?” and by saying “he did not have sexual relations with that woman”. • The nation essentially laughed the matter off, perhaps displaying the moral decay of American society.

    18. Practice Question #1 • Which of the following Presidents reflected a comprehensive conservative approach to government in the post-World War II era? • Harry Truman • John F. Kennedy • Ronald Reagan • Lyndon B. Johnson • William Jefferson Clinton

    19. Practice Question #2 • In Roe v. Wade the Supreme Court ruled that: • The government cannot provide economic or military aid to groups that were in open rebellion against their government. • Abortion is protected by the constitutional right to privacy • The President and Congress are required to balance the federal government. • Florida’s electoral votes were won by George W. Bush in the 2000 election. • The Federal Government was responsible for bailing out the savings and loan industry.

    20. Practice Question #3 • The Iran-Contra Affair is associated with the Presidency of: • Ronald Reagan • George W. Bush • Bill Clinton • Richard Nixon • George H.W. Bush

    21. Practice Question #4 • During the Presidency of George H.W. Bush: • The United States was attacked by members of a terrorist group known as Al Qaeda • The Oklahoma City bombing occurred • U.S. troops were sent to the Balkans after a civil war erupted following the collapse of Yugoslavia • Iraq invaded its oil-rich neighbor Kuwait • The United States sent troops to Somalia and Haiti

    22. Practice Question #5 • Which of the following did not occur during the Presidency of Bill Clinton? • Family and Medical Leave Act • North American Free Trade Agreement • The passage of the Brady Bill • The federal attack on the Branch Davidian Compound in Waco, Texas • The U.S. military invasion of Afghanistan

    23. Practice Question #6 • The Conservative Movement by 1980 was supported by all of the following except which one? • Moral Majority • Advocates of gun control • Opponents of Affirmative Action • Critics of “secular humanism” • Citizens who supported increased taxes

    24. Practice Question #7 • All of the following were part of Reaganomics except which one? • Increased spending on Social programs like welfare and Medicaid • A dramatic reduction in personal income taxes • Deregulation of business and industry • Tough stand against federal labor unions, such as PATCO • The theory of Supply-Side economics

    25. Practice Question #8 • Ronald Reagan’s greatest strength or achievement as President was: • The reduction of the Federal Deficit • His hands-on administration of the federal government • Initiating the improvement of relations with the Soviet Union • His ability to communicate traditional values and restore confidence and patriotism within the American public • Increasing the standard of living of Middle-Class Americans

    26. Practice Question #9 • All of the following were true of the Iran-Contra affair except which one? • Reagan advisers tried to exchange American hostages for a weapons deal with Iran • Anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles were sold to Iran • Funds were used to support rebels fighting Saddam Hussein in Iraq • The arms deal violated the Boland Amendment passed in Congress. • Democrats hoped that the scandal would help them in the 1988 election

    27. Practice Question #10 • President George H.W. Bush received his greatest public approval for: • The appointment of the first African American to the Supreme Court • His conduct of foreign affairs in the Middle East • His landmark legislation to improve American education • Holding the line against tax increases • The invasion of Grenada

    28. Answer Key • C • B • A • D • E • B • A • D • C • B

    29. Unit 12.4: The Presidency of George W. Bush • What controversy surrounded the election of 2000 that resulted in the election of George W. Bush? • How did George W. Bush respond to the Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in 2001, what lingering effects are still with the Obama administration? • What major events shaped George W. Bush’s domestic policy?

    30. Unit 12.4: The Presidency of George W. Bush • What controversy surrounded the election of 2000 that resulted in the election of George W. Bush? • Formerly the Governor of Texas, George W. Bush called himself a “Compassionate Conservative” and believed his approach to domestic and foreign policy would allow people at home and around the world to live both a materially and spiritually richer life. • In the 2000 Presidential election, Bush actually won fewer popular votes than his opponent, Al Gore (formerly Clinton’s Vice President) and mere electoral votes separated the two. • The election would be decided in Florida where numerous voting irregularities and faulty voting machines cast a dark cloud on the election. The Bush campaign sued to prevent questionable ballots from being counted and in Bush v. Gore the Supreme Court ruled that the subjectivity of the vote counters in such a case as this would skew the results (Five of the Nine Justices were Reagan/Bush Conservatives).

    31. Unit 12.4: The Presidency of George W. Bush • How did George W. Bush respond to the Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in 2001, what lingering effects are still with the Obama administration? • The attacks of September 11, 2001 would define Bush foreign policy during his first term and galvanize support for international military intervention. • The source of this attack was Al Qaeda, a terrorist group led by Osama Bin Laden and harbored by the Taliban government of Afghanistan. • Bush ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to remove the Taliban from power, hunt for Osama Bin Laden, and establish a base for democracy in the region. • Operation Enduring Freedom (the invasion of Afghanistan) succeeded in the short term, but it would take over 10 years to find and kill Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan, and we are still fighting Taliban insurgents in Afghanistan today (with the real possibility that if we leave they may resume control of the country). • In 2003, based on faulty intelligence and assertions by Saddam Hussein himself that Iraq was building nuclear weapons and possessed chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD’s), Bush ordered the invasion of Iraq in a preemptive “regime change” to remove Hussein from power. • Operation Iraqi Freedom was initially very successful, removing Hussein from power and placing him under arrest (he was later executed for crimes against humanity). Once the “war” was over the “peace” was much more difficult to sustain as Sunni and Shi’ah insurgent groups fought each other and the occupying American forces, often with suicide attacks and use of Independent Explosive Devices (IED’s).

    32. Unit 12.4: The Presidency of George W. Bush • What major events shaped George W. Bush’s domestic policy? • When the nation became aware that the intelligence that led us into Operation Iraqi Freedom was faulty and the military was unsuccessful in finding any weapons of mass destruction, anti-war protesters began charging that the nation had been duped and misled, some even went so far as to charge that the Bush Administration concocted this war to finish what his father had started in 1991. • Libertarians were angry over the restrictions on personal freedom levied by the USA Patriot Act. • The public became disillusioned with the business community after massive scandals at Enron and WorldCom. • Controversies over abortion rights, affirmative action, and same-sex marriage plagued Bush’s second term. • The Bush Tax Cuts combined with an expensive Prescription Drug Benefit for Seniors widened the Deficit and increased the National Debt. • Bush championed the “No Child Left Behind” program in Education. • As Bush’s 2nd term was coming to an end in 2008 the Financial industry found itself on the brink of collapse (mainly because of government incentives to provide “bad loans” in an effort to stimulate the economy). Bush would initiate a bail out of the financial industry that further worsened the deficit, but President Obama would be left to deal with the bulk of the problem.

    33. Unit 12.5: The Presidency of Barack Obama • What conditions contributed to the historic nature of the election of 2008? • What major events have shaped the foreign policy of President Barack Obama? • What major events have shaped Barack Obama’s domestic and economic policies?

    34. Unit 12.5: The Presidency of Barack Obama • What conditions contributed to the historic nature of the election of 2008? • During the Democratic Primaries Illinois Senator Barack Obama (an African American) faced off with Hillary Clinton (a woman) for the Democratic nomination for the Presidency. Barack Obama eventually won the Democratic nomination for the 2008 election. • After winning the Republican primaries, John McCain selected Alaska Governor Sarah Palin to be his Vice Presidential candidate (Geraldine Ferraro was the first woman chosen to run for the Vice Presidency in 1984) • Either way the election turned out there would be a historic “first” in the White House. President Obama won the election of 2008 becoming the first African American President elected in the United States.

    35. Unit 12.5: The Presidency of Barack Obama • What major events have shaped the foreign policy of President Barack Obama? • President Obama defined his foreign policy by highlighting five key principles: • "bringing a responsible end to this war in Iraq and refocusing on the critical challenges in the broader region," • "by building the first truly 21st century military and showing wisdom in how we deploy it," • "by marshalling a global effort to meet a threat that rises above all others in urgency – securing, destroying, and stopping the spread of weapons of mass destruction," • "rebuild and construct the alliances and partnerships necessary to meet common challenges and confront common threats", and • "while America can help others build more secure societies, we must never forget that only the citizens of these nations can sustain them." • The main focal points of the Obama Administration in his second term in office have been: • Issues related to instability in Egypt, Libya, and Syria. • Attempts to develop nuclear power that could lead to the creation of nuclear arms in North Korea and Iran. • Resolving lingering issues related to Iraq and Afghanistan • Lingering criticism over the treatment of terror suspects at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

    36. Unit 12.5: The Presidency of Barack Obama • What major events have shaped Barack Obama’s domestic and economic policies? • Ended “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” in the military banning discrimination based on sexual preference. • Passed the Hate Crimes Bill • Overhauled the Credit Card industry making it more consumer-friendly • Invested heavily in clean energy sources • Passed a Universal Health Care (“Obamacare” by his critics) in Congress, it still has some hoops to jump through in the court system. • Bailed out the Automobile Industry • Dealt with the Financial Crisis and has reduced unemployment to around 7% when it was as high as 10% at one point. • Critics have pointed the skyrocketing national debt that has resulted from President Obama’s spending programs.

    37. Unit 12.6: The War on Terror • What events contributed to the foundations of terrorism in the world? • How has the rise of Islamic Fundamentalism affected the nature of terrorism around the turn of the Twenty-First Century? • What events have demonstrated the rise of “Domestic” Terrorism in the United States? • Have the responses to terrorism caused any limitations on the basic rights and freedoms of American citizens?

    38. Unit 12.6: The War on Terror • What events contributed to the foundations of terrorism in the world? • The establishment of the state of Israel following World War II created a “powder keg” in the Middle East. Displaced Palestinians based out of neighboring Jordan launched suicide attacks, mortar attacks, and rocket attacks to harass the Israelis. • In 1967 and 1973 Israel fought brutal wars with its Muslim neighbors (The Six Day War and the Yom Kippur War). • June 1982: Israel invaded Lebanon to destroy terrorist bases from which attacks on Israel were being launched. The invasion sunk Lebanon into armed chaos and President Reagan was compelled to send U.S. Marines into Lebanon to stabilize the country. On October 23, 1983 U.S. Marine Corps Barracks were attacked by suicide bombers and more than 200 Marines were killed. Reagan then withdrew the remaining Marine forces from Lebanon.

    39. Unit 12.6: The War on Terror • How has the rise of Islamic Fundamentalism affected the nature of terrorism around the turn of the Twenty-First Century? • 1992: Al Qaeda makes its first attack in the Yemen Hotel Bombings where bombs were detonated to try and kill American troops en route to Somalia, they failed. • 1993: Al Qaeda attacks the World Trade Center for the first time. This attack killed six and wounded over a thousand, but they failed to destroy the symbol of free trade in the world. • 1998: Al Qaeda attacks U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. • 2000: Al Qaeda successfully attacked the U.S.S. Cole anchored in Yemen. This came after failed plots to attack U.S. and Israeli tourists and a failed plot to attack Los Angeles Airport. • September 11, 2001: Al Qaeda terrorists hijack four passenger planes and fly two into the “Twin Towers” of the World Trade Center causing their collapse, one into the Pentagon, and another that was intended for the White House (but was brought down by courageous passengers in Pennsylvania). Over 3000 were killed in the attacks.

    40. Unit 12.6: The War on Terror • What events have demonstrated the rise of “Domestic” Terrorism in the United States? • Some prominent domestic terrorist groups include the Ku Klux Klan(anti-communist, anti-civil rights, and anti-Catholic activities), the Weather Underground (Vietnam protests), and the Army of God (bombings of Abortion clinics). • Some important domestic attacks included: • Theodore Kaczynski (The Unabomber) sent letterbombs in the mail to prominent academics with emphasis on those connected with modern technology. • Terry Nichols and Timothy McVeigh used a truck bomb to blow up the Federal Building in Oklahoma City killing 168, including numerous children. • Centennial Olympic Park Bombing, which was the first of four committed by Eric Rudolph who evaded capture by the police by hiding in the Appalachian Mountains. • Shortly after the 9/11 Attacks several Americans died from Anthrax sent by letters in the mail to politicians and celebrities. The sources of the attacks were unknown and many feared that biological attacks would be the next wave of terrorist activity. • The government responded to attacks by foreign and domestic terrorist groups by passing the USA Patriot Act and creating the Department of Homeland Security, both of which have been accused of taking away the basic personal freedoms they claim to protect.

    41. Unit 12.6: The War on Terror • Have the responses to terrorism caused any limitations on the basic rights and freedoms of American citizens? • In October 2001, following the attacks on the Trade Center and Pentagon, Congress passed the USA Patriot Act. • Permitted extensive telephone and email surveillance • Authorized the detention and deportation of any immigrants suspected of terrorist ties. • 2002: Congress created the Department of Homeland Security as a Cabinet-level Department to protect the nation’s borders and ferret out potential attackers. • The Department of Justice began rounding up immigrants and holding them without Habeas Corpus rights until they could be investigated for ties to terrorist groups. • President Bush pushed for Terrorist suspects to be tried by military tribunals rather than in U.S. Courts. • The American Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba became home to thousands of Terrorists and Al Qaeda/Taliban fighters captured in Afghanistan. These suspects were held in legal limbo while the government tried to decide if they should go before military tribunals or receive trials in American Courts.

    42. Practice Question #11 • Jerry Falwell is associated with: • Pro-Abortion Rights • The Oklahoma City Bombing • Opposition to the Family and Medical Leave Act • The Christian Fundamentalist Movement of the 1980s • Congress’s decision to impeach President Clinton

    43. Practice Question #12 • Geraldine Ferraro: • Is the first woman to run for the Vice Presidency of a major political party • Is associated with the Reagan Democrats • Was responsible for planning the bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995 • Was President Reagan’s Secretary of State • Was a White House intern implicated in an affair that ultimately led to Bill Clinton’s impeachment

    44. Practice Question #13 • The controversy over the 2000 presidential election revolved around contested ballots in which state? • Georgia • Michigan • Ohio • Florida • New York

    45. Practice Question #14 • President George W. Bush ordered a U.S. invasion of Afghanistan to: • Secure that nation’s oil fields during a civil war • Topple the Taliban government, which had aided and abetted Al Qaeda Terrorists • Restore to power a U.S.-backed government that had been overthrown by the Taliban • Draw public attention away form the Iran-Contra Affair • Topple the regime of Saddam Hussein

    46. Practice Question #15 • Operation Desert Storm refers to: • The U.S.-backed military operations to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation • The U.S. overthrow of Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega • The U.S. military operation in Somalia • The overthrow of Saddam Hussein • The U.S. effort to capture Al Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden

    47. Practice Question #16 • The election of Bill Clinton in 1992 was most closely associated with the slogan or phrase: • “It’s the economy, stupid” • “Government is not the solution, it is the problem” • “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall” • “Read my lips, no new taxes” • “I am not a crook”

    48. Practice Question #17 • Which of the following was not true of the American economy during the 1980s and early 1990s? • The upper 20% of households gained a larger share of the national income • The national debt increased over four times what it was in 1980 • The median family income increased dramatically • The United States became a debtor nation for the first time since World War I • Deregulation reduced the competiveness of American business

    49. Practice Question #18 • Which of the following trends or conditions did not characterize American society in the early 1990s? • Economic pressures arising from technological change • Increasing respect for political leaders in Washington • Increasing inequality in the distribution of income and wealth • Reduced public concerns about communism • Increased public concern about federal budget deficits

    50. Practice Question #19 • The most convincing evidence of a conservative trend in U.S. politics in the late 20th century was: • The defeat of George H.W. Bush in the election of 1992 • The Iran-Contra Affair • Controversy over the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court • Outbreak of the Persian Gulf War • The Congressional Election of 1994