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  1. Plants, Insects and our Environment and How They Interact!!!!

  2. Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis: • Process by which plants capture Energy from the Sun; use it to build Carbohydrates • Directly by eating the plant (lettuce) or indirectly (by eating another animal), they provide the food for the living world, including themselves • Occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes • Oxygenic Photosynthesis: • Produces oxygen; cyanobacteria, algae and essentially all land plants

  3. Figure 10.2 (b) Multicellularalga (c) Unicellularprotists (e) Purple sulfurbacteria (a) Plants (d) Cyanobacteria 40 m 10 m 1 m

  4. Algal Groups – Green, Brown and Red

  5. Non – Vascular Plants - Mosses

  6. Number of Land Plant Species

  7. Seedless Vascular Plants - Ferns

  8. Carboniferous Plants – Coal Formation

  9. Seeds: Transforming the World • Seed: • Consists of an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat • Seeds: • Changed the course of plant evolution, enabling them to become the most Dominant Photosynthetic Producer in most terrestrial ecosystems • Seed Plants: • Plants and other organisms were able to move on land because of the formation of the ozone layer • Originated about 360 million years ago • Domestication of seed plants along with animals had begun by 8,000 years ago and allowed for permanent settlements

  10. Seed Plants • Seeds provide some evolutionary advantages over Spores Producers (Ferns): • May remain dormant for years until conditions are favorable for germination • Have a supply of stored food – good for the plants but “Food for Us” • My be transported long distances by wind or animals or water • Gymnosperms: “Naked Seeds” • Seeds are exposed on cones • Appear early in the fossil record about 305 million years ago and dominated Mesozoic (251–65 million years ago) terrestrial ecosystems • Today, cone-bearing Conifers dominate in the northern latitude • Angiosperm: • Seeds are found in fruits, which are mature ovaries • Began to replace gymnosperms near the end of the Mesozoic • Dominate more terrestrial ecosystems

  11. Gymnosperms – Cycads • Cycads: • Most are tropical or subtropical with palm-like leaves • Individuals have large cones (either male or female) • Air or Beetles carry pollen • Thrived during the Mesozoic, but relatively few species exist today

  12. Gymnosperms – Ginkgo • Ginkgo: • Age of the Dinosaurs • Single living species, Ginkgo biloba • Male is widely planted • Pollinated by wind • Leaves are resistant to insects, disease and air pollution

  13. Gymnosperms – Gnetophyta • Gnetophyta: • Genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia • Species vary in appearance • Some are tropical; others live in deserts having a deep tap root

  14. Gymnosperms – Conifers • Conifers: • Largest group of the Gymnosperms • Many dominant the forested regions of the Northern Hemisphere • Most conifers are evergreens; few are deciduous • Evergreens can carry out photosynthesis year round as they retain their leaves • Tallest – redwood; oldest – bristlepine cone • Life Cycle - Reproduction: • Development of Seeds from fertilized ovules • Transfer of sperm to ovules by Wind Blown Pollen

  15. Figure 30.5e Common juniper Douglas fir Sequoia European larch Wollemi pine Bristlecone pine

  16. Angiosperms • Angiosperms: • Ancestors of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms diverged 305 million years ago • Angiosperms originated at least 140 million years ago • Comprise more than 250,000 living species • Previously, Angiosperms were divided into 2 main groups; • Monocots (one cotyledon) – remain as a group • Dicots (two dicots) • Today, Eudicot (“True” Dicots) includes most Dicots

  17. Angiosperms – Basal • Basal Angiosperms: • 3 small lineages: Amborella trichopoda, water lilies, and star anise

  18. Angiosperms – Magnoliids • Magnoliids: • Include magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants • More closely related to monocots and eudicots than basal angiosperms

  19. Angiosperms – Monocots Monocots: > 25% angiosperm species are Monocots

  20. Angiosperms – Eudicots Eudicots: > 2/3 angiosperm species are Eudicots

  21. Angiosperms • Angiosperms: Greek anthos for flower • Seed plants with reproductive structures called Flowers and Fruits • Pollinators: animals (insects that feed on pollen) move pollen grains from male parts of one flower to female parts of another • Coevolution: over time, plants and animal pollinators jointly evolved; changes in one exerts selection pressure on the other • Angiosperms have 2 key adaptations • Flower: • Structure specialized for sexual reproduction • Pollinated by insects, animals or wind • Fruits: • Typically consists of a mature ovary but can also include other flower parts • Protect seeds and aid in their dispersal • Seedscan be carried by Wind, Water, or Animals to new locations

  22. Angiosperm Flowers • Flowers are the Reproductive Structure of Angiosperms: • Non-Reproductive: • Corolla (Petals): leaflike ring (brightly colored) that attracts pollinators • Calyx (Sepal): leaf-like outer whorl at base; photosynthetic; protects ovary • Receptacle: modified green base of the flower (modified leaves) • Reproductive: • Stamens: male parts of a flower • Anther:pollen is produced by meiosis in pollen sacs • Filament: veined stalk that holds the anther • Carpels(Pistils): female parts of a flower • Ovary:eggs developed • Style: tube that connects the ovary with stigma • Stigma: sticky or hairy surface where the pollen lands

  23. (a) Structure of an idealized flower Figure 38.2a Stamen Carpel Stigma Anther Style Filament Ovary Sepal Petal Receptacle

  24. Diversity of Flowers • Flower Structure: adaptations to maximize Cross-Pollination between 2 different plants • Regular: symmetric (identical sections) or Irregular: not radially symmetric flowers • Single: 1 flower or Inflorescences: many flowers • Complete: sepals, petals, stamens and carpals • Incomplete: lack one or more of these structures • Perfect: may be pollinated by other plants or itself • Imperfect: male or female parts or cannot be pollinated by itself • Monoecious: both male and female • Diecious: male or female flowers on separate plants • Self-Pollination has its advantages but often produces plants that are less vigorous than Cross-Pollinated Plants

  25. Pollination • About 390 mil years ago, Seed Plants began making Pollen – at 1st, air currants may have disperse the pollen but Insects made the connection between “Plant with Pollen” and “Food” • Pollination: • Transfer of Pollen from an anther to a stigma by wind, water, or animals • Wind-Pollinated species (grasses and many trees) release large amounts of Pollen • Co-Evolution: • 2 or more species jointly evolving as an outcomes of close biological interactions • Heritable changes in one species affects the other so the other evolves also • Pollination Vectors: • Agents that deliver pollen from an anther to a compatible stigma (wind or releasing billions of pollen grains) • Pollinators: • Living pollination vectors (insects, birds, or other animals) • Flower shape, pattern, color and fragrance are adaptations that attract sanimal pollinators • Often rewarded for visiting a flower by obtaining nutritious pollen or sweet Nectar • Selective advantage of Pollinators visiting flowers - bring the pollen to the next plant • 90% of the 295,000 have Co-Evolved with Pollinators and do not depend on the Wind

  26. Pollinators • Visual Cues: • Bee pollinated flowers are often yellow, blue or purple • Birds and butterflies are attracted to red and yellow flowers • Olfactory Cues: • Bats (nectar sipping) search for intense fruity or musty odors • Beetles and flies search for fermenting fruit and drug • Nectar: • Sucrose rich fluid secreted by the plant • Provides the food for butterflies and hummingbirds • Bees collect it and bring it back to the hive to make Honey • Flowers: • Evolved with their Pollinator • Nectar rich floral tubes are the same length as the pollinator’s feeding siphon (proboscis) • Small flowers like daisies are of no interest to finches or bats • Tall, thin flowers cannot support beetles

  27. Angiosperms and Their Pollinators

  28. Abiotic Pollination by Wind Pollination by Bees Figure 38.4a Common dandelionunder normal light Hazel staminate flowers(stamens only) Hazel carpellateflower (carpels only) Common dandelionunder ultraviolet light

  29. Pollination by Mothsand Butterflies Pollination by Bats Pollination by Flies Figure 38.4b Anther Moth Fly egg Stigma Blowfly on carrionflower Long-nosed bat feedingon cactus flower at night Moth on yucca flower Pollination by Birds Hummingbirddrinking nectar ofcolumbine flower

  30. Corpse Flower

  31. Apple and Peach Flowers

  32. Cactus Flowers

  33. Hummingbirds and Flowers

  34. Fruits • Fruit: • Develops from the Ovary • Protects the enclosed seeds and aids in seed dispersal by wind or animals • May be classified as Dry, if the ovary dries out at maturity, or Fleshy, if the ovary becomes thick, soft, and sweet at maturity • Fruits are also classified by their development: • Simple: single or several fused carpels • Aggregate: single flower with multiple separate carpels • Multiple: group of flowers called an inflorescence • Accessory: other floral parts contribute to the fruit; apple, ovary is embedded in the receptacle • Fruit Dispersal Mechanisms include: water, wind and animals

  35. Figure 38.10 Stigma Style Carpels Stamen Flower Petal Ovary Stamen Stamen Sepal Ovary (inreceptacle) Stigma Ovule Ovule Pineappleinflorescence Pea flower Raspberry flower Apple flower Remains ofstamens and styles Each segmentdevelopsfrom thecarpelof oneflower Carpel(fruitlet) Stigma Sepals Seed Ovary Stamen Seed Receptacle Raspberry fruit Pineapple fruit Apple fruit Pea fruit (b) Aggregate fruit (d) Accessory fruit (c) Multiple fruit (a) Simple fruit

  36. Seeds • Seed (mature ovule): • Embryo and nutritious endosperm encased in a seed coat • Remains dormant until conditions are right for germination and growth resumes • Germination: • Process by which a dormant mature Embryo in a seed resumes growth after a period of arrested growth (Dormancy) • Begins when water activates enzymes in the seed • Cell divide, elongate and differentiate into primary root • Ends when the Primary Root breaks the seed coat • Growth: • Differentiation results in the formation of tissues and parts in predictable patterns • Cells divide by Mitosis

  37. Dispersal by Wind Figure 38.11a Dandelion fruit Tumbleweed Dandelion “seeds” (actually one-seeded fruits) Winged seed ofthe tropical Asianclimbing gourdAlsomitra macrocarpa Winged fruit of a maple Dispersal by Water Coconut seed embryo,endosperm, and endocarpinside buoyant husk

  38. Dispersal by Animals Figure 38.11b Fruit of puncture vine(Tribulus terrestris) Squirrel hoardingseeds or fruitsunderground Ant carryingseed with nutritious“food body” to itsnest Seeds dispersed in black bear feces

  39. Fruit and Seed Dispersal

  40. Asexual Reproduction • Many Angiosperm species reproduce both Asexually and Sexually • Asexual Reproduction results in a clone of genetically identical organisms • In some species, a parent plant’s root system gives rise to adventitious shoots that become separate shoot systems

  41. Bees as Pollinators in Our Food Supply