In four square miles of rainforest, one finds lots of biodiversity. There are approximately… • 750 species of trees • 1500 different flowering plants • 125 different mammals • 400 species of birds • 100 reptiles • Countless insects • 60 different amphibians • 150 species of butterflies
Many Amazon species are endemic. Endemic means they are found no other place on Earth!!!
Development and trade—clearing land to make room for buildings, or to sell lumber. Some (or most) is illegal.
Natural threats • Fire caused by lightening • Droughts
Threats to the Jaguar • Hunted for its beautiful fur • Destruction of habitat • Loss of food source
Why is it so important to protect the Amazon? The Rainforest provides ecosystem services, which are benefits to the global ecosystem like….
What do laws do? • Laws make it a crime to harm or kill endangered animals. • Laws make it a crime to destroy habitat of endangered species. • Laws make it a crime to buy or sell animals or parts of animals that are at risk of becoming extinct. • Laws can force those responsible for pollution to clean it up.
Three Laws to Discuss • Endangered Species Act (U.S.)United States law that provides for the listing of plants, animals, and insects that are threatened or endangered in order to protect them from further decline and attempt to bring about their recovery. • Convention on Biological Diversity (International)International agreement among more than 170 countries (but not the United States) that expresses recognition of the value of the variety of life on Earth (biodiversity) and obligates member countries to take steps to conserve and protect that life. • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (International)International agreement among more than 140 countries (including the United States) placing limits on buying or selling endangered or threatened species (plants and animals) and parts of these species.
An emergency Room for species At risk Lists Endangered and Threatened Species Endangered Species Act
Is the ESA enough? No. Global problems require global solutions.
Convention on Biological Diversity • Over 170 country members. U.S. has signed but is not a full member. • Emphasizes conservation and sustainable use of components of biological diversity. • Obligates countries to plan for conservation and establish protected areas.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) • 140 member countries; U.S. is full member. • Regulates trade in endangered or threatened species. Requires permits to import and export protected species or parts of them. • Three Appendices, with different levels of protection.
Appendix One • Highest Level of Protection. Contains about 800 Endangered Species. • Examples: African Elephant, Orangutan, Giant Panda, Tiger, Humpback Whale
Appendix Two • Middle Level of Protection. Contains Threatened Species. • Examples: American Black Bear, Hippopotamus, Gray Wolf, Flamingos, King Cobra.
Appendix Three • Not fully listed. Individual countries are asking for help in protecting the animals in their countries that aren’t yet threatened. • Examples: Golden Jackal (India); Walrus (Canada); Goliath Heron (Ghana); Himalayan Marmot (India).