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Grammar Presentation: The Sentence. GradWRITE! Initiative Writing Support Centre Student Development Services. Outline. What is a sentence? Phrases and Clauses Sentences. What is a sentence?. Purpose: To communicate an idea Components: Subject Predicate Punctuation. Subject.

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Grammar presentation the sentence l.jpg
Grammar Presentation:The Sentence

  • GradWRITE! Initiative

  • Writing Support Centre

  • Student Development Services


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • What is a sentence?

  • Phrases and Clauses

  • Sentences


What is a sentence l.jpg
What is a sentence?

  • Purpose:

    • To communicate an idea

  • Components:

    • Subject

    • Predicate

    • Punctuation


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Subject

  • What the sentence is about

  • At the most basic level, a noun or pronoun

  • Examples:

    • She added methanol to the solution.

    • Methanol was added to the solution.

    • Add methanol to the solution. (Implied ‘You’)


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Predicate

  • Describes what the subject is or does

  • At the most basic level, a verb

  • Examples:

    • She added.

    • She added methanol to the solution.

    • Add methanol to the solution.


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Objects

  • Part of the predicate

  • What the subject is acting upon

  • Direct objects and indirect objects

  • Examples:

    • She added methanol to the solution.


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Punctuation

  • Indicates where to pause in writing

  • Most sentences end in periods


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Phrases and Clauses

  • Groups of words that are not quite sentences


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Phrases

  • Word clusters without a subject-predicate pair

  • Provide more information than simple subjects and predicates

  • Cannot stand on own

  • Examples:

    • Noun phrase: The guitarist’s performance...

    • Verb phrase: ... seems to be starting.


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Clauses

  • Contain a subject and a predicate

  • Two kinds:

    • Independent clause

    • Dependent clause


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Independent Clause

  • Can stand alone as a sentence

  • Example:

    • She added methanol to the solution.


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Dependent Clause

  • Cannot stand alone as a sentence

  • Needs an independent clause to complete it

  • Acts as a noun, adjective or adverb

  • Example:

    • After adding methanol to the solution, she stirred the beaker.


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Sentences

  • Expresses an idea using a subject and a predicate

  • Four kinds:

    • Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex

  • Not just about length


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Simple sentences

  • One subject-predicate pair

  • Independent clause

  • Example:

    • Methanol was added to the solution.


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Compound Sentences

  • Two or more independent clauses in one sentence

  • Two methods


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Compound Sentences

  • Semi-colon

  • Example:

    • Methanol was added methanol to the solution; she stirred the beaker.

    • Methanol was added to the solution; this caused a reaction.

    • Methanol was added to the solution; subsequently, a reaction occured.


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Compound Sentences

  • Co-ordinating conjunctions

  • FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So

  • Example:

    • Methanol was added to the solution, and this caused a reaction.


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Complex Sentences

  • 1 independent clause and 1+ dependent clauses

  • Example:

    • After adding methanol to the solution, the beaker was stirred.

    • Methanol was added to the solution, while the beaker was stirred.


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Compound-Complex Sentences

  • 2+ independent clauses and 1+ dependent clauses

  • Example:

    • While methanol is added to the solution, the beaker is stirred, and the colour will change.


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Sentence Variety

  • Think about the effect you want

  • Short simple sentences attract attention

  • Compound sentences invite comparison

  • Compound-complex sentences give lots of information


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Resources

  • Sin and Syntax by Constance Hale

  • APA Style Guide

  • University of Ottawa’s HyperGrammar

    • www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/grammar.html

  • Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab

    • www.owl.english.purdue.edu

    • Search for Grammar and ESL resources


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