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1. The Dutch Republic experienced stronger economic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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555-559 -Analyze documents to understand the challenges facing the Dutch Republic in the 17 th Century. -Describe the political and economic organization of the Dutch Republic.

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555-559-Analyze documents to understand the challenges facing the Dutch Republic in the 17th Century. -Describe the political and economic organization of the Dutch Republic.

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Read and study the primary source selections in Part A and Part B and answer the following question:“ Describe the factors that contributed to making the Dutch an economic giantin seventeenth-century Europe.” * Make a list of factors…

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1. The Dutch Republic experienced stronger economic

growth during the 1500s-1600s than other nations.

2. Spain sold raw goods only to buy back more

expensive finished products.

The Dutch purchased raw materials and made expensive

finished products.

France and England were distracted with other political

and religious issues rather than economic ones.

Spain was too distracted with unifying the state and

expelling non-Catholic Christians.

6. Spain relied too much on wealth from Americas and

collecting tax revenues, not allowing for growth of new

business opportunities.

7. Italy and Germany were not united and therefore, could

not protect their national economic interests

The merchant class dominated the Dutch state, so, laws

favored their economic interests.

D

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T

C

H

R

E

P

U

B

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C

the dutch republic 1600s
The Dutch Republic (1600s)
  • Won independence from Spain as the “Republic of the United Provinces of Netherlands” under the Union of Utrecht (1581) and later confirmed by the “Treaty of Westphalia” in 1648.
  • Referred to as the “Golden Age of the Netherlands” since we see a flowering of Dutch achievement in areas of science, art and literature.
  • The Dutch Republic (The United Provinces) was also another model of constitutionalism:
the dutch republic 1600s1
The Dutch Republic (1600s)
  • The Dutch Republic (The United Provinces) was also another model of constitutionalism:
    • Each of the seven provinces was controlled by a very wealthy class (like an oligarchy) of merchants called “regents” who controlled all domestic issues.
    • These seven provinces held all the power.
    • A weak national federal assembly called the “States General” ran foreign policy and was responsible to the Estates.
    • So, we have a weak confederation of strong provinces.
    • The States General appointed a representative or “stadtholder” in each province (Estate) who was responsible for keeping law and order and defense.
      • Oftentimes this office was held by the same man in all provinces such as the sons of William the Silent of the House of Orange. (Maurice, William)
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Dutch Republic

The Estates

(seven provinces)

Regents

The States

General

stadtholder

the dutch republic 1600s2
The Dutch Republic (1600s)
  • The Dutch Republic (The United Provinces) was also another model of constitutionalism:
    • Holland was the province or estate that dominated the republic since it had the largest navy and most wealth.
    • Because of this, the province of Holland’s capital city The Hague was chosen as the meeting place of the States General.
  • The government of this Dutch Republic did not really fit into the normal categories of 17th century political organization, but it worked:
    • Not monarchial but fiercely republican.
    • Government totally controlled by wealthy merchants and bankers.
    • They were wealthy middle class, not of aristocratic nobility.
    • They were a weak confederation, yet resisted powerful neighbors

i

the dutch republic 1600s3
The Dutch Republic (1600s)
  • Then WHY did they have such political success?
    • Success rested on their immense commercial prosperity.
    • Also allowed almost total religious toleration.
      • Many Jews from Spain’s “Reconquista” of the 15th century fled to the Dutch Republic like lens grinder Benedict Spinoza in Amsterdam.
      • This also attracted foreign investment making the Bank of Amsterdam the best source of credit in Europe during the 17th century (Golden Century).
the dutch republic 1600s4
The Dutch Republic (1600s)
  • What particular industry was the cornerstone of the Dutch economy?
    • Fishing industry – from June to December fleets took herring from the dangerous English coast in the North Sea.
    • This encouraged more ships to be built.
      • Dutch merchant marine grew to be the largest in Europe and by 1650 was estimated to have 16,000 ships (about half the total of all of Europe).
the dutch republic 1600s5
The Dutch Republic (1600s)
  • What other economic activity did the Dutch develop?
    • Foreign trade
      • 1602 the Regents of Holland formed the Dutch East India Company as a joint-stock company to cut into the Portuguese trade.
      • Seized Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town), Ceylon and Malacca; sometimes returning as much as 35% to investors!!
      • Later, the Dutch West India Company was created to develop trade in North America.