The Dutch World Section 4.18
Questions to Consider • Describe Dutch cultural and commercial accomplishments in the 17th century. • How do the paintings of Rembrandt, Vermeer, and Moreelse illustrate Dutch artistic achievements and Dutch intellectual, commercial and colonial enterprises? • Explain the nature of government and of political life in the 17th century Dutch Republic. • How did the Dutch and English come into conflict in the 17th century? With what results? • How did the Dutch become involved in conflict with Louis XIV With what results?
Dutch Civilization and Government • Republic of the Netherlands was the most wealthy, flourishing, and most important in international diplomacy and culture (1650) • most bourgeoisie of Europe • Wealth helped to avoid direct war
Cultural achievements • Literature • Hugo Grotius • Law of War and Peace (pioneering work on international law) • Baruch Spinoza Baruch Spinoza • Son of Portuguese Jewish refugees • wrote philosophy on human conduct, church and state • Leeuwenhoek – biological science • Huyghens – improved the telescope, wave theory of light, saw rings of Saturn • Anna Maria van Schurman – education of women in The Learned Maid or Whether a Maid May Be Called A Scholar
Cultural achievements • Painting • Jan Vermeer portrayed typical domestic scenes (Girl with the Pearl Earring) • Rembrandt • Masters of the Clothe Hall show businessmen and judges • the men who are running the Republic (Calvinistic) • burghers – personal simplicity in the face of wealth Vermeer, The Geographer The Masters of Cloth Hall
Religion • Religion • Adopted tolerance • Calvinists split – orthodox regroup – stay split by 1632 • Arminius questioned predestination • Catholics granted rights • Jews were welcomed • Christian sects found refuge • Pilgrims Arminius
Dutch Exploration • Controlled most of Europe’s shipping • 10 thousand ships in 1600 • Carriers between France, Spain, England, and the Baltic • 1602 founded the Dutch East India Company • began to displace the Portuguese • Founded Jakarta (Batavia) • Trade with Japan (isolationist) achieved by 1600 • Expelled all other Europeans • 1612 New Amsterdam • 1652 Cape of Good Hope • Afrikaners
The Bank of Amsterdam (1609) • European money was chaotic • kings, cities or private individuals minted own coins • often debased with other alloys (uncertain values) • Amsterdam • accepted mixed monies • accessed their value • exchanged European currency for gold florins • known and unchanging weight • Florins became the currency of trade • Amsterdam is the financial center of Europe until 1790s
Dutch Government • High Mightinesses – • delegates from 7 provinces • made up estates general & passed on interests of the provinces • Stadholder • elected representative (executive) of the province • but none for the provinces as a whole • Had much status but the burghers were running the financial affairs of the country • When the country was threatened the status of the stadholder went up • stadholder had not been selected for 22 years (since William II died in 1650) as peace prevailed
William of Orange/King William III • changes/expands the role of the stadholder • B. 1650 • Son of William, Prince of Orange, and Mary Stuart (daughter of Charles I) • small, stocky, grave, determined • Multilingual • spoke English, French, Dutch, German, Latin and Spanish fluently • Disliked pomp and circumstance, flattery • Preferred to focus on the affairs of state • 1677 married Mary Stuart (b.1662, daughter of James II and Anne Hyde, King Charles II of England’s niece) • Louis XIV complete opposite and implacable enemy
Foreign Affairs: Conflict with English/French • 1651 England passes the Navigation Act • Ships carrying goods to England or England’s colonies must be from England or the country of origin – not middle party • aimed directly at the Dutch • Dutch must salute English when in the English Channel
Foreign Affairs: Conflict with English/French • 1652 – 1674 three wars take place • English take New Amsterdam • 1667 Louis XIV takes the Spanish Netherlands (southern provinces) and the French Comte Sites of the battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War.
Foreign Affairs: Conflict with English/French • Dutch form the Triple Alliance with the English and the Swedes • Louis XIV drops claim to Spanish Netherlands briefly • 1673 Louis XIV took three provinces of the Spanish Netherlands • Dutch are unable to defend them against the French army • What should they do?
Dutch and the Balance of Power • 1673 Dutch make William III stadholder and make the office hereditary • William III moved the Dutch toward absolutism and works to centralize his power with limited success • William III develops a new alliance • Denmark, Brandenburg, Austria, and Spain • Dutch and Hapsburg alliance illustrates the complete shift to balance of power politics
Dutch and the Balance of Power • Treaty of Nimwegaen (1678) • unstable peace is made with France • Spain loses the French Comte to France • HRE loses city-states in Flanders to France • Dutch provinces are preserved • 1689 William III becomes king of England • Fate of European affairs turn as England becomes the sword of William’s balance of power political strategies