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Behaviorism

Behaviorism

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Behaviorism

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  1. Behaviorism John B. Watson B. F. Skinner Benjamin Bloom

  2. Behaviorism Definition: • Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior • Behaviorists learning theories emphasize changes in behavior that result from stimulus-response associations made by the learner • Behavior is directed by stimuli • Behaviorists believe that our behavior is determined by forces in the environment that shape our behavior

  3. John B. Watson Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors" –John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930

  4. John B. Watson • The principal originator of behavioristic psychology • First claimed that human behavior consisted of specific stimuli that resulted in certain responses • 1915 – Served as the President of the American Psychological Association (APA) • 1925 – Published Behaviorism • 1928 – Published Psychological Care of Infant and Child • 1957 – Received the APA’s award for contributions to psychology

  5. The “Little Albert” Experiment • Watson and assistant Rosalie Rayner conditioned a small child to fear a white rat • Accomplished this by repeatedly pairing the white rat with a loud, frightening clanging noise • able to demonstrate that this fear could be generalized to other white, furry objects • The ethics of the experiment are often criticized today, especially because the child's fear was never deconditioned

  6. B. F. Skinner1904-1990 • 1968 - National Medal of Science from President Lyndon B. Johnson • 1971 - Gold Medal of the American Psychological Foundation • 1972 - Human of the Year Award • 1990 - Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology

  7. B. F. Skinner Operant conditioning: • Method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior • “Shaping and maintaining behavior by making sure that reinforcing consequences follow” • Believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior

  8. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov

  9. Key Concepts in Operating Conditioning • Reinforcer: any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows • PositiveReinforcers: favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior • Negative Reinforcers: removal of an unfavorable events or outcome after the display of a behavior

  10. Key Concepts in Operating Conditioning • Punishment: presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows • Positive Punishment: • referred to as punishment by application • involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows • Negative Punishment: • known as punishment by removal • occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs

  11. Skinner Box • This illustration illustrates operant conditioning. The mouse pushes the lever and receives a food reward. Therefore, he will push the lever repeatedly in order to get the treat.

  12. Benjamin Bloom 1913-1999 • Joined the Department of Education at the University of Chicago in 1940 • Attained a PhD in Education in 1942, during which time he specialized in examining • Develop the Learning Taxonomy model through the 1960's • Appointed Charles H Swift Distinguished Service Professor at Chicago in 1970

  13. Benjamin Bloom Taxonomy • Cognitive domain: intellectual capability • Affective domain: feelings, emotions and behavior • Psychomotor domain: manual and physical skills

  14. Cognitive Learning • Cognitive learning is demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem-solving, and evaluating ideas or actions. • Six levels within the cognitive domain: • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation

  15. Affective Learning • Affective learning is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of : • Awareness • Interest • Attention • Concern and responsibility • Ability to listen and respond in interactions with others • Ability to demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or values which are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study

  16. Psychomotor learning • Demonstrated by physical skills • Coordination • Manipulation • Grace • Strength • Speed • Actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance or athletic performance

  17. Reference • “Bloom's taxonomy - learning domains” http://www.businessballs.com/bloomstaxonomyoflearningdomains.htm#bloom's%20taxonomy%20overview. October 10, 2009 • “B. F. Skinner Biography (1904-1990)” http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm. October 10, 2009 • “John Watson Biography” http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/watson.htm. October 10, 2009 • “Introduction to Operant Conditioning” http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm. October 10, 2009 • “What Is Behaviorism?” http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm. October 10, 2009

  18. Reference • “Behaviorism” http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism#Behaviorism_Advocates. October 15, 2009 • “Little Albert Experiment” http://www.betterlucktomorrow.com/character_sites/steve/Little%20Albert.htm. October 10, 2009 • “Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy of Behavioral Objectives” http://hs.riverdale.k12.or.us/~dthompso/exhibition/blooms.htm#cognitive. October 10, 2009 • “B.F. Skinner and behaviorism” http://www.essortment.com/all/skinnerbf_rcde.htm. October 15, 2009 • “Hall of Fame - Ivan Pavlov” http://www.psyonline.nl/hof/en-pavlov.htm. October 15, 2009