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Behaviorism. Jason Vallimont EDPS603. Behaviorism: B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism focuses on learning as a process of connections between a stimulus and a response. Understanding Behavior Theory.
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Behaviorism Jason Vallimont EDPS603
Behaviorism: B.F. Skinner Behaviorism focuses on learning as a process of connections between a stimulus and a response.
Understanding Behavior Theory • Understanding behavior theory lies heavily understanding the roles of stimulus, response, and reinforcer. • Stimulus: something that incites to action or exertion or quickens actions or feelings • Response: a reaction toe a stimulus • Reinforcer: is and consequence that strengthens or weakens the response to a behavior
The Pros and Cons Behaviorist Pros Behaviorist Cons Power struggles may occur Instruction is not as individualized Students are forced to work and motivation may lack No responsibility or ownership on student’s own learning Focus on facts, no questioning of material • Outcomes are standardized • Students are better behaved • Assessment is used to give feedback • Use of positive reinforcement • Focus on facts • Textbook gives structure • Classes are structured and tend to make effective use of time
Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Ouch!!!! Something unwanted or a consequence • Nice work! • A reward
Schedules of Reinforcement • As you can see from the graph at the right all four schedules of reinforcement work at different rates • The one that offers the the quickest behavior results is the variable ratio • This may be why casinos are so addicting
How do I make reinforcement effective? Only use with students that need the extra push Be sure the praise is specific, not just for task accomplishment Remember: Reinforcement is not bribery Reinforces used for learning, not to control Praise should be about the quality of work Keep it private Be Specific!
Behavior Modification • http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/tbrc/tbrc.php • The above website is a resource I use to set goals with students that are struggling academically or behaviorally • A meeting is set up with parents, social worker, any team teachers, principal, and assistant principal. • During this meeting we work together to set up 3-5 goals for the student to work. Generally one goal is set up to ensure the student will have some success, the others are set for behavior modification • This system is monitored on a chart that gives rewards for meeting all goals 8 or higher and consequences for any goals below 8. • We also decide on the rewards and consequence system as a team. • This is a way that I use behaviorism in my class it includes positive and negative reinforcement within a constructivist environment
Resources • Bfskinner.org • Pokay, P. (2011). Lecture notes from unit 9: Behaviorism. http://www.offthemark.com/cartoons/1992-02-20.gif • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_FMQ6FQ-EoSg/TS-qFnsWb0I/AAAAAAAAABY/uGtxDvnoGUo/s1600/SkinnerRatCartoonSM.jpg • http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behavior/operant.html • http://evangelistjamescroft.blogspot.com/2007/02/positive-reinforcement.html • http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/prtut/ • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/behsys.html
Strategies Used • Graphic organizer: T-chart and matrix (table) to compare the pros and cons of behaviorism • Variety: slides have different formats multiple strategies such as color and bolding, cartoons, examples, visuals, and graphic organizers • Multiple Intelligences: from the learning styles unit the use of cartoons and graphs aid visual learners • Example or Behaviorism: Reinforcement and punishment used in a behavior report card • Constructivism: Using students, parents, teachers and support staff to develop goals • Behavior report card used for individual students, so it is private reinforcement for students that need it. This is a better strategy than using it for students that are already doing their job. • Goal setting
Behaviorism: My opinion • I believe that behaviorism ideas are useful in a classroom. • I do not believe they should be used in isolation from other strategies • They should be part of a toolbox used in conjunction with other strategies to enhance learning not used to control but modify • This theory helps to provide structure and ensure the maximum instructional time is used • It also helps to push struggling students